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Cambridge History of Christianity, The Cambridge History of Christianity: Volume 5, Eastern Christianity

Cambridge History of Christianity, The Cambridge History of Christianity: Volume 5, Eastern Christianity - ISBN: 9780521811132
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Bindwijze: Boek, Gebonden (17-08-2006)
Genre: Overige religies
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Beschrijving

This volume encompasses the whole Christian Orthodox tradition from 1200 to the present. Its central theme is the survival of Orthodoxy against the odds into the modern era. It celebrates the resilience shown in the face of hostile regimes and social pressures in this often-neglected period of Orthodox history. The volume provides the necessary historical background both for the present condition of the Orthodox Churches, particularly in Russia and the Middle East, and for their attitude to and involvement with the Ecumenical movement.

Details

Titel: Cambridge History of Christianity, The Cambridge History of Christianity: Volume 5, Eastern Christianity
Mediatype: Boek
Bindwijze: Gebonden
Taal: Engels
Aantal pagina's: 742
Uitgever: Cambridge University Press
Publicatiedatum: 2006-08-17
NUR: Overige religies
Editor: Angold, Michael
Afmetingen: 228 x 152 x 52
Gewicht: 1350 gr
ISBN/ISBN13: 0521811139
ISBN/ISBN13: 9780521811132
Intern nummer: 6818903
Volume: 5

Biografie (woord)

Michael Angold was Professor of Byzantine History at the University of Edinburgh from 1996-2005. His publications include Church and Society in Byzantium Under the Comneni 1081-1261 (1995).

Extra informatie

The Cambridge History of Christianity
Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-81113-2 - The Cambridge History of Christianity - Edited by Michael Angold

Index



Index




‘Abbâs, Shâh, 435

Abbot, George (archbishop of Canterbury), 194

‘Abd al-Masîh al-Habashî, 504,505,507

‘Abdallâh ibn al-Tayyib, 394

‘Abdallâh ibn Faḍl, 393,395

Abdel-Ahad, Ignatius Peter VIII (Syrian Catholic patriarch), 518

Abdisho, 394

abortion, 598

Abovean, Xačatur, 447

Abraham (Arciwean), Armenian Uniate patriarch, 442

Abreham (Ethiopian bishop), 485

AbÛ Ishâq ibn al-‘Assâl, 392

AbÛ’l-Barakât, 393

AbÛ’l-Faraj ibn al-‘Ibrî (Bar Hebraeus), 391,395,399,401

AbÛ’l-Makârim, 389,398,399

Acton, Lord, 333

Adam as first practitioner of hesychasm, 116

Addai II (patriarch of Old Calendarists), 526

Addia and Mari, Eucharistic prayer of, 534

adelphata (monastic annuity), 161,164

administrative and organisational problems of modern Orthodoxy, 596–7

Adrian (Russian patriarch), 326,327,348, 351

Adrianople, treaty of (1829), 446

Afanas’ev, Nikolai, 557,585

Afghan revolt of, 1722 437

afterlife, concepts of, 98–9

Agallianos, Theodoros, 171,175

Agapetos, treatise on imperial authority by, 48,49

Agathangelos (ecumenical patriarch), 233

Agathe, St, 93

agriculture

   eastern Christianities under Islam, 401

   lay piety associated with, 93,100

   monasticism associated with colonisation of land, 41–6,267

   pagan festivals, persistence of, 100

Aḥmad ibn Ibrahim ‘Grañ’, 462–3,471,473

Akathistos hymn and art, 130,148,150,151

Akathistos icon, 203

Akhijan, Andreas, 515

Akindynos, Gregory, 101,112

Aksakov, Ivan, 357

Aksentejevic, Pavel, 590

Aksum. See Ethiopian Christianity

Aktash, Timotheos Samuel, 513

Alania, See of, 23–5

Alans (Germanic tribe)

   asylum sought by, 25

   conversion of, 4

Aʈbakec‘i, Barsel, 437

Aʈbakec‘i, P‘ilipos, 437

Alban, St. See St Alban and St Sergius, Fellowship of

Albania, modern Orthodox church in, 594

Aleksandr (bishop of Viatka), 320

Alekseev, Pëtr, 338

Alekseevna, Anna, 269

Aleksei Mikhailovich (tsar), 313,314,315,319–21,326,348

Aleksii (metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia), 29–31,43,293

Aleksii I (Simanskii), Russian patriarch, 548,569,570,572,585

Aleksii II (Ridiger), Russian patriarch, 572,574–5

Alexander Cuza (prince of Romania), 239

Alexander I (tsar), 329

Alexander II (tsar), 331,345,350,356

Alexander III (tsar), 447

Alexander Nevsky monastery, 338

Alexander the Clerk, 87

Alexandria, Bars’kyj’s drawing of Cleopatra’s Needle in, 224

Alexandrian patriarchate. See also specific patriarchs

   abandonment of Alexandria by Coptic patriarchs, 375

   Coptic Christianity organised around, 375

     See also Coptic Christianity

   Ethiopian church’s reliance on theology of, 457,460,481

   History of the patriarchs of Alexandria, 389,391,395

   under Ottoman rule, 171,184

Alexios Axouch, 413

Alexios I Komnenos (emperor), 90

Alexios III Angelos (Byzantine emperor), 15,16,415

Alexios III (emperor of Trebizond), 20

‘Alî ibn Dâwud al-Arfâdî, 393

Allatios, Leo, 188

Alp Arslan (Seljuk sultan), 155

Alpin, Prosper, 490

Alvares, Francisco, 471–3

Alypios the Stylite, St, 91

Amadaeus of Savoy, Count, 67

Amalfitan monastery on Mount Athos, 15

Amdä Ṣeyon (Ethiopian ruler), 468

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, 444

amulets, 47,92–3

Amvrosii (Grenkov), Russian monk, 338

Anania (Armenian anti-catholicos), 408

Anastasii (Gribanovskii), Russian diaspora metropolitan, 548

Anavarzec‘i, Grigor (Armenian ruler), 420–2,424

Anderson, Paul, 552

Andreae, Jacob, 189

Andrei the Holy Fool, St, 47,364

Andrew of Longjumeau, 384

Andronikos I Doukas (emperor), 81

Andronikos II (emperor), 17,18,25,58,60,62

Andronikos III (emperor), 19,62–4

Andronikov monastery, Moscow, 289

Andropov, Iuri, 571

Andrusovo, truce of (1667), 312

Angarathos monastery, Crete, 193

Angelos, Alexios (caesar of Thessaly), 160

Anglicans, Cyril I Loukaris’s contacts with, 194

Anna Dalassene, 90

Anna Komnene, 90

Anna of Kashin, 310,365

Anne (mother of Virgin Mary), St, 264

Anselm of Canterbury, St, 71

Anthimos IV (ecumenical patriarch), 236

Anthimos VI (ecumenical patriarch), 242

Anthimos (patriarch of Jerusalem), 207

Anthimos (David Kritopoulos), metropolitan of Oungrovlachia, 27,40

Anthony, founder of Kievan Cave-Monastery, 15,36

Anthony, St, 504

Anthony IV (ecumenical patriarch), 31,32,45,271

Anthrakitis, Methodios, 204

Antioch, patriarchate of

   Arab nationalism and, 245

   Armenian ecclesiastical ambitions centred on, 406,416

   Jacobite patriarchs of Antioch and Syria, 377,383

   Latin patriarch, refusal of Greek Christians to recognise, 383

   Ottoman rule, under, 171,184

Antonii (Khrapovitskii), Russian bishop, 341,343,553

Antonii (Vadkovskii), Russian metropolitan, 336,341,342

Anzerskii Skit, 314

Apeiranthos, Naxos, church of the Virgin at, 81

Aplłarip Arcruni (Armenian king), 408

Apocalypse of Anastasia, 47

apocalyptic. See eschatology

Apokaukos, Demetrios, 172,176

Apokaupos, John, metropolitan of Naupaktos, 86

Aquinas. See Thomas Aquinas

Arab nationalism

   Copts and, 497,498,501

   patriarchates of Antioch and Jerusalem and, 245–6

arabisation and Arab Christianity, 376, 389–92

Aram (K‘ešišean), Armenian catholicos 453

Aramaic speakers, arabisation of, 390,391

Archangels, monastery of, Cyprus, 225

archontes, 177–8,180,183

Arciwean, Abraham, 442

Arewelc‘i, Vardan, 418

Arghun (Iranian Ilkhân), 385

‘Arîḍah, Anṭun, 522

Aristotle, 76,205,234,309,424,426

Ar ʈut’eanc’, Yovsëp‘, 443

Armenian Christianity, 430

   See also Latin-Armenian relations, 1050–1350 404–6

     Antiochene patriarchate, 406,416

     art and religion, 409,412

     Byzantine empire and hierarchy, relationship with, 406–7,413–15

     complexity of Armenian religion, 427–9

     conversion to Islam, 410

     crusades, effect of, 383,406,410

     interiority, spirituality based on, 412

     Islam, conflicts with. See Islam

     large-scale movements of peoples during, 405

     Latins, relationship with. See Latin-Armenian relations

     liturgy, 409

     Mamluk sultanate, resistance to, 408,420–3

     monasteries and monasticism, 409,411–12,426

     Mongol invasions, effects of, 417,419–20,423

     trading activities and religious interchange, 408,419–20,428

   16th century, 430–1

   17th century and Counter-Reformation, contacts with west during, 431–3

   18th–20th centuries

     constitution of, 1863 445–6

     education, secularism, and cultural revival, 446,447–9

     genocide (1915–1923), 450–1

     modern ecumenical movement, 453–5

     political parties, formation of, 449–50

     Russia, entry of South Caucasus into, 446–7

     Soviet Republic of Armenia, 453,454

     Tanzimat era, 444–5

   art and religion in

     1050–1350 409,412

     19th and 20th centuries, 448

     in New Julfa, 437

   autocephaly of, 407,413,447

   conversion of Armenians to Christianity, 4

   crusades, effect of, 383,406,410

   evangelical Protestants, 444,454,455

   fragmentation and dispersion of Armenian nation and peoples, 407–8,428,430,450–1,453,455–6

   French missions, 432

   genocide (1915–1923), 450–1,512

   in Georgia, 414,446–7

   Greater Armenia

     14th-century Roman mission to, 424–7

     in 17th century, 424–7

   independent Republic of Armenia, 454–5

   in India, 442–3,455

   Islam and. See under Islam

   L’viv community, 434–5

   military prowess, Armenians noted for, 409

   as millet in Ottoman empire, 440,441,442

   in Moldavia, 434

   monasticism of. See monasteries and monasticism

   Mxit‘arists, Uniate order of, 441,443,447,455

   nationalism

     constitution of, 1863 445–6

     education, secularism and cultural revival, 446,447–9

     independent Republic of Armenia, 454–5

     in India, 442–3

     revolutionary movements, 449–50

     Soviet Republic of Armenia, 453,454

     Tanzimat era, 444–5

   New Julfa community, 435–7,442–3

   one-nature Christology of, 404

   in Ottoman Empire, 430–1,439–1,444,449–50

   See also subhead ‘nationalism’, this entry.

   resettlement of Armenians in Cappadocia, 406

   in Russia, 438–9,446–9,453

   Soviet Republic of Armenia, 453,454

   under Stalin, 451,452

   Syrian Orthodox Christians and, 512

   Tanzimat era, 444–5

   in Wallachia, 434

   Zart‘onk‘ (Awakening) 445

Arnor the Earl’s Poet, 3

Arsenije (Serbian bishop), 577

Arsenios the Greek, 315

art and religion. See also books, art and religion; church architecture; embroidery; icons; vestments

art and religion in Armenian Christianity

   1050–1350 409,412

   19th and 20th centuries, 448

   in New Julfa, 437

art and religion in later Byzantine empire, 127–9

   Bars’kyj’s use of drawings in journal, 215,222–4

   communication of church dogma and saints’ Lives via, 91

   earthly and heavenly time in, 152–3

   funeral and burial rites, 145–6

   in funeral chapels, 98

   liturgical year

     divine office and, 147

     gospel lectionaries, 137–9

     hagiographic collections, 141–3

     homilies, collections of, 139

     naos decoration and, 143–5

     praxapostolos and prophetologion, 138

   Mount Athos renovations of mid-sixteenth century, 166

   non-cyclical ecclesiastical rites, 144,145–6

   polyvalent nature of, 152–3

art and religion in Russia

   diaspora, 555–6

   iconostasis, 283–7

   under Ivan IV, 290,295–301

   Kremlin, 265,282,286,288,292–5

   Moscow, 281–3

   Novgorod, 278–81

   symbolists, 366

   Tatar conquest, effect of, 276–8

   women’s devotional art, 264

Artazec‘i, Zak‘aria, 424

asceticism vs. hesychasm, 102,109

Ašegean, Xorën, 449

Asen brothers, Bulgarian uprising of 15–16

Ašot IV (Armenian king), 406

Assemani, Joseph Simon, 520

Assemani, Stephen Evodius, 520

associationism, 394

Assyrian Church. See Church of the East; Nestorians

Athanasios (ethnomartyr of Greek Revolution), 230

Athanasios I (patriarch of Constantinople), 83,89,91,100

Athanasios (Mount Athos monk) 158

Athanasios of Nikomedeia, 230

Athanasios, St, 44,505

   liturgy of, 409

Athonite Academy, 202,205

Audo, Joseph, 528

Augsburg Confession

   presentation of copies to Orthodox, 188,189

   refutation by Orthodox, 190

Augustine of Hippo, St, 57,428

autocephalous Orthodox churches

   Armenians, 407,413,447

   Bulgarian exarchate, 240–4,542

   ecumenical patriarchate’s resistance to, 237,541

   Ethiopians, 484,486,487

   Greek church

     ecumenical patriarchate’s rejection and resolution of autocephaly of, 236

     as model for autocephaly of other nationalist churches, 236,238

   Malankar Syriac church in India, 514

   in modern world, 591–4

   OCA (Orthodox Church of America), 592

   Romania, 238–40

   Russia, 253,272,275,305

   Russian diaspora church, 557

   Serbs, 237–8

   state control of church and, 248

   Yugoslavia and patriarchate of the Serbs, 238

Averroes (Ibn Rushd), 428

Avvakum, 313,320,321

Awanik‘, Matt‘ēos, 433

Awetik‘ (Ewdokac‘i), Armenian patriarch, 440

Aygekc‘i, Vardan, 414

Aynt‘apc‘i, Eliazar, 438

Ayvalik Academy, 208

Babić, Gordana, 128

Babik, Aṙak‘el, 432

Bachkovo monastery, 37

Badr al-Jamâlî, 375

Bä’edä Maryam (Ethiopian ruler), 471

al-Bakrî 401

Balaban, Dmitrii, 312

Baldwin of Boulogne, 410

Baʈišec’i, Vardan, 440

Balitza, 27

Balkan Wars (1912–1913), 247

Baʈramian, Movsës, 442

Balsamon, Theodore, 84

Banate of Severin, 26

banks of deposit, Mount Athos monasteries functioning as, 162–4

BanÛ ‘Assâl, 392,400

baptism

   lay piety in Russia and, 355

   naming of children, 94

   triple immersion, Orthodox insistence on, 307

Bar Hebraeus (AbÛ al-Faraj Ibn al-‘Ibrî), 391,395,399,401

Bar Ma’dânî (Jacobite patriarchal candidate), 380

Baranovych, Lazar, 312,320

Bari, shrine of St Nicholas at, 211,212

Barjrberdc‘i, Kostandin, 418

Barlaam of Calabria

   on hesychasm, 101,102,110–13,120,124

   Palamas’s opposition to, 63–6,101–2,110–13,121–6

   on Thomas Aquinas, 63

   thought of, 62–5,110–13

Barsaum, Ephrem, 512

BarṢaumâ, Jacobite monastery of, 377,380,384,399

Barsawmã (Nestorian monk), 385

Barseʈ (Armenian catholicos), 408

Bars’kyj, Vasyl Hryhovyc, pilgrimages of, 210–12

   1723–25 (first part of journal), 212–13

   1725–29 (second part of journal), 213–19

   1730–44 (third part of journal), 219–26,227

   1744–47 (letters, drawings and miscellaneous documents), 219,227–8

   analytical approach to sites visited, development of, 216

   biographical information, 210–12

   death of, 219,228

   drawings, use of, 215,222–4

   education, effect of, 224

   foreign peoples, shift in attitudes towards, 213,225

   languages

     growing fluency in, 218

     initial difficulties with, 212–13

   literary vs. oral sources, reliance on, 217,219,222,225

   manuscript and editions of journal, 210,228

   method of composition of journal

     final collection of materials for later organisation and presentation, 219–22

     initial on-the-spot recording of events and observations, 212

     later composition of diary-like entries intended for further revision, 219

   Orthodox liturgy, interest in, 213,219,226

   purpose and emphasis of journal, 210–12,226

   on Roman Catholic persecution of Orthodox, 211,226,227

   on Turkish rule, 226

Bartholomaios I (ecumenical patriarch), 576,597

Bartolomeo da Poggio, 424,426

BäṢälotä Mika’él, 468–9

Basel, Council of, 73

Baselyos (Gäbrä Giyorgis), Ethiopian bishop and patriarch, 484–7

Bashîr II al-Shehâbî (Amîr), 521

Basil I (emperor), 406

Basil II (emperor), Menologion of, 141,144,145–6

Basil, St, liturgy of, 84,127,129–30,134

Basil the Blessed, St, 258,300

Basil and Nikolai of Pskov, 48

Baybars (Mamluk sultan), 388,402,420

Bayezid II (sultan), 166,186

Belarus

   re-establishment of Orthodox hierarchy in, 306,324

   Russia, effect of separation from, 255

   Russian occupation of, 312

Beliaev, Innokentii, 343

Belinskii, Vissarion, 357

Bellavin, Tikhon (American Orthodox bishop), 592

Bellavin, Tikhon (Russian patriarch), 325,347,558,559

Belting, H., 151

Benedict XII (pope), 427

Benedict XV (pope), 517,518,521

Benjamin (ecumenical patriarch), 242

Berdi-Beg, khan, assassination of, 29

Berdyaev, Nikolai, 587

Bessarion, cardinal, 73,74,75,76,77

betrothal rites in medieval Byzantium, 94–6

Bible. See scripture

Bidawid, Raphael, 529

birth control, 598

bishops

   Coptic Christianity, episcopate of, 492,507

   Ethiopian Christianity, episcopate of. See Ethiopian Christianity

   sanctuary space, portrayal in, 134–6

Black Death, 19,277

Blakhernai, church of Virgin at, 87,88

Blakhernai, council of, 159

Blastares, Matthew, 8

Blemmydes, Nikephoros, 56

Blok, Alexander, 253

Bloody Sunday (9 January, 1905) 342

Bloom, Anthony, 583

Blue Dormition, 281

Boca, Arsenie, 566

Bogdanov, Sila, 318

Bogdanovich, Aleksandra, 344

Bogoiavlenskii, Elevferii, 553

Bogoiavlenskii, Vladimir, 343

Bogoliubov, D. I., 345

Bogomils, 47,124,254

Bohemond VI, prince of Antioch, 387

Bolkhovitinov, Evgenii, 329

Bonaparte, Napoleon, 206,441

Bondarchuk, Sergei, 574

books, art and religion. See also printing and publishing

   eastern monasteries under Islam, 397–401

   Glajor Gospel, 425

   under Ivan IV, 295

   in late Byzantine empire, 137–9,141–3

   in Novgorod, 281

   translations of scripture. See scripture

Boretsky, Iov, 306

Boris, St, 279,295

Boris (king of Bulgaria), 561

Borisov, Innokentii, 331

Borovskii Gospels, 295

Boucher de la Richardière, Fr., 491

Brachamios, Philaretos (Armenian prince), 408

brainwashing or re-education, 563–5

Brâncoveanu monastery, Romania, 566

Branković, George, 162,163

Branković, Maria (Mara), 164,175,177

Brest-Litovsk, pseudo-union of (1595), 193

Brezhnev, Leonid, 571

Brianchaninov, Ignatii, 332

bridges, chapels as part of, 82

Britain

   Church of the East and, 515

   Coptic Christianity and British in Egypt, 497,498,503

   Cyril I Loukaris’s contacts with, 194

   Orkneys poet Arnor, 3

   Peter I influenced by Bishop Gilbert Burnet, 327

   Russian metropolitan received by George VI, 547

   Siberia, British missions in, 329

British and Foreign Bible Society, 360

Briusova, G. E., 288

Brock, Sebastian, 531

Brotherhood of Theologians (Zoë movement), 589

The Brothers Karamazov (Dostoevsky), 339

Broumalia, 99

Bruni, Leonardo, 76

Bukharev, Fedor, 336

Bulgakov, Sergii, 551,552–4,587

Bulgaria

   Asen brothers, uprising of, 15–16

   Byzantine commonwealth, participation in, 7,8,52

   communism and socialism in, 561–2,575–6

   conversion of, 4

   diaspora, ecclesiastical authority over, 542

   ecclesiastical emancipation of, 240–4,542

   Ivan Alexander of, 11

   modern schism in church of, 575–6

   Mount Athos patronage and political aspirations of, 16

   political independence following ecclesiastical emancipation, 241

   Russia, sense of brotherhood with, 562

   Slavonic textual community and, 7,36–9

   Veliko T’movo hailed as ‘new Tsargrad’ by, 10

Buondelmonti, Cristoforo, 162

burial. See death

Burnet, Gilbert, 327

‘Burning Bush’ movement, 566

Byzantine Commonwealth. See also art and religion in later Byzantine empire; lay piety and religious experience in Byzantium

   Armenian Christianity and, 406–7,413–15

   beliefs, behaviours and assumptions, horizontal ‘force field’ of, 46–9

   decline of Byzantium as power, continued and increasing importance despite/because of, 12,14,45

   ecumenical patriarchate, imperial role of, 21–8,50

   independent legitimacy of satellite kingdoms asserted by association with, 5–6,35

   monastic authority and concept of, 41–6

   moral and religious role of emperor, 31

   Mount Athos

     political implications of patronage of, 14–21

     Slavonic textual community created by, 36–41

   Obolensky’s institutional theory of, 6–7,12,51

   overarching imperial order, sense of, 33–6

   persistence of Roman Empire in Constantinople, commitment to concept of, 10–11

   as pole of Orthodox Church, removal of, 169

   reality of, 50–2

   Rus participation in, 8–11,28–33

   significance and influence of, 3–14

   and Slavonic textual community, 36–41

   spirituality of Orthodoxy informed by 581

   superordinate centres, Helms’s theory of, 12

Byzantium and the west, relationship between, 53

   See also union of Orthodox and Latin churches

   Andronikos III’s reopening of negotiations, 62–4

   Barlaam’s on Latin and Greek theology, 62–5

   friars’ delegation to Byzantium (1234), 54–6

   Gregory Palamas’s reaction to Barlaam, 63–6

   Italy and Latin Levantine, Greek–Latin relationships in, 69–73

   John V Palaiologos’s attempts at reunion, 67–8

   Kydones brothers’ translations of Thomas Aquinas, 66–9

   Latin conquest, effect of, 54–6

   See also Latin conquest of Constantinople

   Michael VIII Palaiologos, overtures of, 56

   obedience of Constantinople to Roman mother-church, papal insistence on, 59

   Ottoman conquest, on eve of, 77–8

   Ottoman vs. Latin conquest, Byzantine views of, 69,159,170,171,185

   prior to Latin conquest of Constantinople, 54

   union of Florence (1439), negotiations leading up to, 73–6

   See also under union of Orthodox and Latin churches

   union of Lyons (1274), Greek opposition to, 58–61

Bzommar, Armenian monastery of, Lebanon, 451

Cadalvène, Fr, 493

Caffa, Armenian monastery of St Nicholas in, 426

Cairo

   Bars’kyj’s visits to, 216

   purported dwelling of Holy Family in, 216

Calends, 99

Ç‘amç’ean, Mik‘ayël, 441

Capuchins

   Armenian missions of, 432,436,441

   Orthodox conflicts with, 197

Carmelites, Armenian missions of, 441

Casimir the Great (Polish ruler), 434

Catherine II the Great (Russian empress), 327,328,338,339,349,360,368

Catholic Church, Orthodox contacts with. See Roman Catholic Church, Orthodox contacts with, and entries at Latin, Uniate and union

Caucasians, metropolitanate of, 24

Caves-monastery. See Kievan cave-monastery

Ceauşescu, Nicolae, 563,576

Çelebi, Evliya, 184

Çelebi, Mehmed, 157

Çelebi, Musa, 157

Celestial (or Divine or Heavenly) Liturgy, iconography of, 137

Cellini, Livius, 185

cenobitic monasticism, 154,163,167

Cési, comte de, 196

Chaadaev, Pëtr, 357

Chalcedonian eastern Christianities under Islam, 375

   See also Melkites

Chaldean Church, 526–31,534

Chancellor, Richard, 258

change and development, Orthodox problems of, 334,596

chapels, 79–83,98

Chariton (abbot of Koutloumousiou/metropolitan of Oungrovlachia), 27,39

Charles I (king of England), 197

Charles of Anjou (king of Sicily), 57

Charouda, church of St Michael at, 94

Cheikho, Paul, 529–30

Cheremis, 328

Chernenko, Konstantin, 571

Chernobyl, 573

Chernyi, Daniil, 288,289,291

Chertkov, Vladimir Grigor’evich, 360

Chilandar, Serbian house on Mount Athos, 15–20,36,37,150

children

   baptising and naming of, 94

   education of. See education

Chirikov, G. O., 291

‘Christendom’ spirituality of Orthodoxy 581

Christodoulos, 155

Christodoulos (Coptic patriarch), 375

Christology

   Armenian Christianity, one-nature Christology of, 404

   Chalcedonian eastern Christianities under Islam, 375

   eastern Christianities under Islam, origins in christological controversies of 5th century, 375

   ecumenical dialogue on, 531–5,595

   Ethiopian Christology, 476–82

     Alexandria, reliance on, 457,460,481

     Confessio Claudii, 477

     Jesuit missions affecting, 476–8

     Karra doctrine, 464,466,479,481

     Qebat controversy (Ewost’atians), 464–5,466,478–82

     Täklä Haymanot and Säga doctrine, 464,465,466,478–82

     täwahedo (union) concept, 459

   of modern Syriac Christianities, 511

   Monophysites, 375,459

   Vienna formula, 531,533

Christopher of Mitylene, 86,93

Chrysoloras, Manuel, 70,71–2,76

Chrysomallos, Constantine, 103

Chrysostom of Drama (and then of Smyrna), 246

Chudov (Miracles) monastery, Moscow, 282,338

church and state, relationship of. See also communism and socialism; nationalism and Orthodoxy

   ecclesiology affected by, 584

   nationalism and Orthodoxy, 232,248

   Nazis, 546–7,554

   in Russia

     during Counter-Reformation, 314,319–21,324

     lay piety and religious experience affected by, 351

     Nikonite reforms, 319–21,348

     Peter the Great’s concept of, 326

   Russian diaspora church and, 546–51

church architecture in Coptic Christianity 509

church architecture in late Byzantine empire

   decoration of naos and liturgical year, 143–5

   decoration of sanctuary area, 134–6

   division of church into naos and sanctuary paralleling liturgical division of people and celebrants, 128

   hymnography and monumental paintings in, 150–1

   lay piety and religious experience, 79–83,98

   templon or iconostasis, 85,133–4

church architecture in Russia

   1380–1589 265–6

   icon of heaven and earth, church building itself as, 285

   iconostasis, organisation of, 283–7

   under Ivan IV, 297,299–300

   Kremlin, 292–5

   modern restorations, 575

   Mohyla’s restoration of Kiev churches 309

   Moscow, 281–3,292–5

   Novgorod, 278

church architecture of Ethiopian royal churches, 471–6

Church Fathers. See patristics

Church of the East

   Chaldean Church and, 526–31

   ecumenical dialogue, 531–5

   Holy Apostolic and Catholic Church of the East and Old Calendarists, split between, 526

   modern church, 523–6

   pre-modern church. See Nestorians

Churikov, Ivan, 345

Chuvash, 328

Cicek, Julius, 514

Cilicia. See Armenian Christianity

cinema in Russia, 361–2

Ciriaco of Ancona, 76,162

civil control of church. See church and state, relationship of

Clement V (pope), 422

Clement IX (pope), 433

Clement X (pope), 435

Clement XII (pope), 520

Cleopa, Ilie, 566

Clot bey, 493

Codex Alexandrinus, 197

Collegium Urbanum, 431,433,434

colonisation

   joint Orthodox and Muslim experience of, 596

   monasticism in Middle Ages associated with, 41–6,267

Coluccio Salutati, 71

commemorative services for the dead, 96, 145

communion. See Eucharist

communism and socialism

   Armenians, 446,447–50,453,454

   in Bulgaria, 561–2,575–6

   Greek Orthodox Church and, 561

   ‘martyrdom’ spirituality of Orthodoxy under, 582–3

   re-education or brainwashing, 563–5

   Romanian Orthodox Church and, 562–7,576–7

   Russia and Russian Church, 340–7

     false portrayal of church as outmoded, 558,582

     Gorbachev era, 571–5

     lay piety and culture, 358,370

     perestroika, 573

     revolutions of 1917 to World War II, 558–60

     spirituality, survival of, 567–71,598

     World War II, effects of, 560–1

   Serbian Orthodox church, 543,544,577–9

   spirituality surviving under

     in Romania, 565,566,574–5

     in Russia, 567–71,598

   World War II, effects of, 560–1

compulsory resettlement (sürgün), Ottoman practice of, 171,174

Confessio Claudii, 477

confraternities, 303,337,367

Congress of Vienna (1815), 369

Conrad of Wittelsbach, 415

Constance, Council of, 72

Constantine I the Great (emperor), 416

Constantine IX Monomachos/Palaiologos (emperor), 9,52,53

Constantine X Doukas (emperor), 406

Constantine of Kostenets, 36

Constantine Stilbes, bishop of Kyzikos, 54

Constantinople. See also Byzantine Commonwealth; ecumenical patriarchate; Latin conquest of Constantinople

   Bars’kyj’s stay in, 219,221,227

   forced resettlement (sürgün), Ottoman practice of, 171,174

   Ottoman conquest of (1453), 78,170,272

   patriarchal academy in, 192,202,204,208

   purpose-built nature of, 3

   return of refugees to, consequences of, 174

   Virgin Mary as patron of, 3

Contra errores Graecorum, 55–60

contraception, 598

conversions to Islam, 181–2,373,410,489

Coptic Christianity. See also Alexandrian patriarchate

   11th–14th centuries, 375–6

     See also Islam, eastern Christianities under

     arabisation of, 376,389

   British in Egypt and, 497,498,503

   church building issues, 509

   conversions to Islam, 489

   crusades, effect of, 384,386

   decline and eventual stabilisation, 488

   diaspora of, 493,494,508

   distribution across Egypt, 490

   episcopate, 492,507

   Ethiopian bishops and, 482–7

   Fatimids, 376

   French Expedition (1798–1801), 489,492

   government of Egypt, Coptic participation in, 490,500

   Islam, relations with, 489–90,497–8,500,509

   lay revival and reform, 495–501

   literary culture and learning of, 392,395,396

   Majilis al-Millî (community council), 495,498–500,504

   missionary impetus of, 509

   in modern Egypt, 488–94,510

     lay reform and revival, 495–501

     monastic revival, 501–6

     reform and revival generally, 495,583–7

     ShenÛda III, patriarchate of, 506–10,583

   monasteries and monasticism, 400,491,501–06,508

   Mongol conquests and subsequent Mamluk sultanate, 388–9

   Muslim Brotherhood, 498

   nationalism, 497,498,501,503

   origins of, 488

   patriarchate conflicts within, 379

   population estimates, 488,490–4

   spiritual revival in, 583–7

   Sunday School Movement, 495,501,504,505,583,590

   Syriac churches, authority over, 532–3

   Wafd movement, 497,498

   western influence, acceptance and later rejection of, 503–4

Corcorec‘i, Yovhannës, 424

Čorekčyan, Gevorg, 452

Cossacks

   Khmelnytsky, Bohdan, revolt of, 311–2, 323

   Zaporozhian Cossacks in Ukraine, 305

Counter-Reformation and Armenian Christianity, 431–3

Counter-Reformation in Russia and Ukraine, 302–6

   ecumenical councils of, 1666–1667 320,321,322

   eschatology in, 311,321

   eventual domination of Orthodox Ukraine Church by Russia, 312,322–3,324

   Khmelnytsky revolt and Pereiaslav Agreement (1648–1654), 311–2,323

   liturgical reforms in Russia, 310–11

   Mohyla, Peter, 308–10

   Nikonite reforms

     background to and implementation of, 313–18

     opposition to, 317–21

   Old Believers, 321–2,324

   printing and publishing in, 307–8,309–10,311,315–18,321

   re-establishment of Orthodox hierarchy in Ukraine, 305–6

   Romanovs in Russia, 306–8

   Uniate church. See Uniate Church in Ukraine

Cranach, Lucas, the Elder, 189

Crete

   Angarathos monastery, 193

   ethnomartyrs of Greek Revolution (1821), 230

   Gerasimos (metropolitan of Crete) 230

   Kavallarea, monastery of, 156

   Venetian Crete, Orthodox/Latin relationship in, 69

Crimean War, 241

Croatia, 577

cross, two-fingered vs. three-fingered sign of, 316

crown of Monomachos, 9,52

crown of St Stephen, 5,254

crusades

   Armenian Christianity affected by, 383,406,410

   eastern Christianities under Islam affected by, 382–6

   Fourth Crusade. See Latin conquest of Constantinople

   Greek view of, 54–6

   Hungarian crusade of, 1444 77

   Islamic religious toleration affected by, 385–6

   Michael VIII Palaiologos’s proposal for joint Byzantine/Latin crusade, 57

Crusius, Martin, 185,189,190

Cuza, Alexander, 239

Cyprus

   Armenian marital alliances with house of Lusignan, 420

   Bars’kyj in, 218

   declaration of independence and subsequent fall to crusaders, 406

   ethnomartyrs of Greek Revolution (1821), 230

   Lusignan dynasty

     Armenian intermarriages with, 420

     Palaiologos family, intermarriage with, 70

   Maronites in, 519–23

Cyril, St, 505

Cyril I Loukaris (ecumenical patriarch), 186,191,192,193–202

Cyril II Kontaris (ecumenical patriarch), 197,198,199

Cyril V (ecumenical patriarch), 202,203,204,208

Cyril VI (ecumenical patriarch), 230

Cyril II (Coptic patriarch), 375

Cyril III (Dâ‘Ûd) (Coptic patriarch), 379,396

Czechoslovakia, Soviet invasion of (1968), 563

Däbrä Asbo (Däbrä Libanos), Ethiopian monastery of, 468,473,485

Däbrä Damo, Ethiopian monastery of, 468

Damietta, siege of (1218–1219), 386

Daniel of Tabriz, 427

Daniil (metropolitan of Moscow), 264

Daniil Aleksandrovich, 282

Danilo (biographer of Milutin), 17

Danilov monastery, Russia, 573

Daranaʈc‘i, Grigor, 430

Daredevils of Sasun, 420

Dâ‘Ûd (Cyril III, Coptic patriarch), 379

Dâ‘Ûd, Ignatius MÛsâ I (Syrian Catholic patriarch), 518,530,534

Davis, Natalie Zemon, 368

Dawit‘ (Armenian prelate in New Julfa), 432

Dawit (Ethiopian ruler), 464,469

Dayr-al-Za‘farân, Jacobite monastery of, 377,401,512

death

   afterlife, concepts of, 98–9

   art associated with funeral and burial rites and tombs, 145–6

   chapels, funeral, 98

   doves, slaughtering, 98

   Ethiopian royal churches as burial sites for rulers, 472

   memorial services, 96,145

   rites for funeral and burial, 96–7

   Russian lifecycle rituals, 356

   salvation anxieties, lay means of assuaging, 97–100

Deesis, 284

Deir al-BarâmÛs (Romans), Coptic monastery of, 492,508

Deir al-Muharraq, Coptic monastery of, 492,508

Deir al-SÛrianî (the Syrians), Coptic monastery of, 492,507,508

Deir Anba Antuni (St Antony), Coptic monastery of, 400,491,508

Deir Anba Bakhum, Coptic monastery of, 508

Deir Anba Bishoi, Coptic monastery of, 506,508,533

Deir Anba Bula (St Paul), Coptic monastery of, 508

Deir Anba Girgis al-Riziqat, Coptic monastery of, 508

Delly, Emmanuel-Karim

Demetrios, St, 89

   feast of St Demetrios in Thessalonike, 87

Demetrios (ecumenical patriarch), 598

Demetrios Mysos the Thessalonian, 188

Denissoff, K., 556

Denkha (Dinkha) IV (patriarch of Church of the East), 525–6,532,533

Descartes, René, 204

development and change, Orthodox problems of, 334,596

dhimma status of eastern Christianities under Islam, 373,380–2

D’iakovo, church of John the Baptist at, 299

diaspora of Orthodox, 539–40

   Armenians, 407–8,428,430,450–1,453,455–6

   Bulgarians, 542

   compulsory resettlement (sürgün), Ottoman practice of, 171,174

   Copts, 493,494,508

   ecumenical patriarchate, role of, 539–41

     phyletism, condemnation of, 539–41

     Russian diaspora and, 542–3,546–51

   Ethiopians, 467

   Latin west, ecumenical relations with, 551–2

   modern issues regarding, 591–3

   nationalist movements leading to, 247,248,542–3

   Old Testament concept of diaspora, 539

   phyletism, 541–2

   Russian Orthodox

     art and culture of, 555–6

     autocephaly of, 557

     Constantinople vs. Moscow, 539–41

     education and scholarship, 552–5

     historical development of diaspora, 542–3

     Latin west, ecumenical relations with, 551–2,553

     liturgy and worship, 556–7

     problems related to, 539–40

     in Serbian patriarchate, 543,544

     state and politics affecting, 546–51

     translation of headquarters to USA 554

     unified archdiocese of ‘Church Abroad’, failure of, 544–6

   Syriac Christianities, 511

     Chaldeans, 529,530

     ecumenism and, 531

     Maronites, 522

     Syrian Catholics, 519

     Syrian Orthodox, 513,514

al-Dimashqî 401

Dimitrje (first patriarch of the Serbs) 238

Dinkha (Denkha) IV (patriarch of Church of the East), 525–6,532,533

Diocletian (emperor), 488

Diodati’s Italian translation of New Testament, 200

Dionisii (abbot of Holy Trinity monastery), 307

Dionisii (icon painter), 264,293–4

Dionisii (Valedinskii), metropolitan of Warsaw, 547

Dionysios I (ecumenical patriarch), 176,177

Dionysios II (ecumenical patriarch), 185

Dionysios (Jacobite patriarchal candidate), 380,391

Dionysios of Ephesos, 230

Dionysios, Platamon, 206

Dionysios the Areopagite. See Pseudo-Dionysios

Dionysiou, Athonite monastery of, 20,156,158,203,220

Disypatos, David, 125

divine office (hymnody)

   horologia, 146–50

   icons influenced by, 151–2

   liturgical year, books of, 147

   monumental painting and hymnography, 150–1

   psalters, 147,149

   text and images in manuscripts associated with, 146–50

Divine (or Heavenly or Celestial) Liturgy, iconography of, 137

divine or holy wisdom, Byzantine imperial connotations of

   Rus adaptation of, 9

   Serbian adaptation of, 8,9

divorce

   in Ethiopian Christianity, 460

   forcible tonsure as means of, 264,269

   modern Russian Orthodox position on, 598

Dmitrievskii, A. A., 333

Dmitrii Donskoi (prince of Moscow), St, 29–31,43,254,268,286

Dmitrii (grandson of Ivan III), 260

Dobrynin, Nikita, 318,320,321

Docheiariou (monastery on Mount Athos), 20,82,165,223

doctrinal development, Russian Church under holy synod’s lack of allowance for, 334

domestic life, Byzantine lay piety and religious experience in, 90–3

Dominic of Aragon, 418

Dominicans

   Armenian Christianity and, 417–19,424–7

   Chaldean Church, 526

   crusades, effect on eastern Christianities of, 384

   delegation of 1234 to Byzantium, 55–60

   Demetrios Kydones and followers, 71

   Fratres Unitores of the congregation of St Gregory the Illuminator, 426,428,432

   influence in Constantinople, 66,69

   Pera, convent in Genoese factory of, 66

   trading patterns favouring activities of, 419

Dominis, Marcantonio de, 194

Domostroi, 256,275

Dondukov-Korsakov, A. M., 448

Doquz-KhatÛn (Nestorian wife of Hülegü), 387

Dormition churches, beliefs regarding, 282,292

Dorotheos of Jerusalem, 45

Dositheos (patriarch of Jerusalem), 201

Dostoevsky, Feodor, 248,339

double-belief (dvoeverie), 256,354

Doungas, Stephanos, 209

Doxapatres, Neilos, 414

Drozdov, Filaret, 329,332,334,335

dualism

   of Bogomils, 47,124

   Gregory of Sinai’s binary opposition of simplicity/unity and multiplicity/division, 117

Dukh khristianina, 337

Durean, Lëon, 453

Dṳrer, Albrecht, 189

Dušan, Stefan

   Hlapen, Radoslav, and, 160

   holy or divine wisdom, adaptation of Byzantine imperial connotations of, 8,9

   law-code of, 8

   Mount Athos and, 18–20,161

   as viewed by Byzantine imperium, 51

dvoeverie (double-belief), 256,354

Dwight, H., 444

Easter, medieval celebration of, 86

Ebu’s-su‘ud, 166

ecclesiology and spirituality, 584–6

ecology and environment

   Chernobyl, 573

   in modern Orthodoxy, 598

ecumenical councils of, 1666-67 320,321,322

ecumenical patriarchate. See also individual patriarchs

   autocephaly and nationalism, resistance to, 237,541

    See also autocephalous Orthodox churches

   Christ depicted wearing sakkos of, 21,134

   diaspora of Orthodox and. See diaspora of Orthodox

   eastern patriarchates under Ottoman rule and, 184

   Greek Revolution, effects of. See Greek Revolution (1821) and independence

   imperial role of, 21–8,50

   Latin conquest, effect of, 21,50

   modern diaspora, interest in, 593

   modern erosion of power of, 597

   Mount Athos, association with, 21

   nationalism and autocephaly, resistance to, 237

    See also nationalism and Orthodoxy

   Nikon reforms in Russia and, 315

   Ottomans and. See under Ottomans and Orthodox Church

   patriarchal academy in Constantinople, 192,202,204,208

   persistence of Roman Empire in Constantinople, commitment to concept of, 10–11

   printing press of, 196,206

   rapid turnover of patriarchs, 24

   reorganisation after Ottoman restoration, 173–5

   resignation from, historical pattern of, 175

   restoration by Ottomans, 170–3

   restoration to Constantinople after Fourth Crusade (1261), 22

   Russian–Ukraine relationship, acceptance of, 323

   synod

     archontes, role of, 177

     reconstitution after Ottoman restoration, 173

ecumenism. See also entries at Latin; Uniate; union

   Aleksii II (Ridiger), Russian patriarch, 575

   Armenian Christians involved in, 453–5

   Christian-Muslim relationships, 596

   on Christology, 539–42

   crusades and Orthodox suspicion of, 594,596

   ecumenism, modern Orthodox suspicion of, 594,596

   in modern Orthodoxy, 594–6

   Russian diaspora church’s participation in, 551–2

   Syriac churches’ involvement in, 531–5

   WCC, 453,467,526,531,552,562,563,595

Edessa, church of the Virgin Gabaliotissa, 160

Edict of Religious Toleration, 1905 (Russia) 342,346,347,365

edinoglasie vs. mnogoglasie (separate vs. simultaneous chanting of different parts of service), 310,311,313

edinoverie (unitary faith) of Old Believers and Russian Orthodox, hopes of, 328

education

   in Armenian Christianity, 434,440,444,446,447–9,451,455

   Athonite Academy, 202,205

   Ayvalik Academy, 208

   Bars’kyj’s pilgrimage journal affected by, 224

   Chaldeans, 530

   Collegium Urbanum, 431,433,434

   in Coptic Christianity, 495,497–8,501,503,504

   devotional reading, 91

   eastern Christianities under Islam (11th–14th centuries), literary culture of, 392–7

   Greek college of St Athanasius, Rome 188

   Kiev Academy, 228,339

   lay piety and religious experience in Russia (1721–1917), 350,353–7,358–63

   L’viv, papal academy in, 434

   modern secular learning, Orthodox views on, 202–9

   modern spiritual renewal and, 589–90

   Mohyla, Peter, in Ukraine, 309,324

   Patriarch Ioakim’s attempt to establish Muscovite theological academy, 323

   patriarchal academy in Constantinople, 192,202,204,208

   Russia

     attempt to return church to distinctively Russian roots, 332–5

     clerical education, synodal reform of, 328,352

     diaspora, 552–5

     St Tikhon’s Orthodox Theological Institute, 589

   Sunday School Movement in Coptic Christianity, 495,501,504,505,583,590

   Syrian Catholics, 517

eggs as part of Easter tradition, antiquity of, 86

Egypt

   Copts. See Coptic Christianity

   French Expedition (1798–1801), 489,492

   Mamluk sultanate, 388

   Melkites in, 377

   monasteries in, 397,398,399

   Saladin, 381

ëǰmiacin, Armenian monastery of, 422,436,437,438,441,443,446,447–9,451

Ekmalean, Makar, 448

Elasson, church of the Olympiotissa at, 150

Elena of Moldavia, 260

Elevferii (Bogoiavlenskii), Russian metropolitan, 553

Elias ibn al-Hadithî, 395

Elias II (Ignatius XXXVI), Syrian patriarch, 514

Elias of Nisibis, 394

Eliayean, Zawën, 450

Eliazar (Aynt‘apc‘i), Armenian patriarch of Jerusalem and Constantinople, 438

Elie ibn Shinaya (Nestorian metropolitan), 393

Elijah as icon subject, 279

Elizabeth, St, 264

Elizabeth (Russian empress), 328

embroidery

   iconographic conventions carried over to, 296

   palls for saints’ tombs, 296

   women’s devotional art in Russia (1380–1589), 264

   See also vestments

ëmin, Yovsëp‘, 442

Emmanuel III (Chaldean patriarch), 530

enamel plaques sent by Michael VII Doukas to Géza of Hungary, 5

England. See Britain

enkolpia, 92

Enlightenment, 202–9,443

    See also holy synod, Russian Church under; Latin–Orthodox relations from Reformation to Enlightenment

environment and ecology

   Chernobyl, 573

   in modern Orthodoxy, 598

Ephraim (abbot of Philotheou, Mount Athos), 587

Ephraim the Syrian, St, 145,308,311

Ephrem, St, missionaries of, 516

Ephremite Sisters of the Mother of Mercy, congregation of, 517

Epifanii the Wise, 44,262,268,283

Epiphany, medieval celebration of, 86

Epiros, Tocco family of, 70

episcopate

   Coptic Christianity, 492,507

   Ethiopian Christianity. See Ethiopian Christianity

   sanctuary space, portrayal of bishops in, 134–6

Erewanc‘i, Oskan, 433

Erewanc‘i, Simëon, 443

Erkaynabazuk, Zak‘arë and Ivanë, 414

Ermogen (archbishop of Kaluga), 570

Erznkac‘i, Kostandin, 420

Erzurum, Armenian monastery of, 441

eschatology

   Armenian evangelical Protestant mission and, 444

   Armenian expectations following Seljuq invasions, 416

   belief that world would end in, 1492 266

   as connecting strand in Byzantine Commonwealth, 46

   in Counter-Reformation Russia and Ukraine, 311,321

   French Revolution’s effects on Orthodox Church, 205

   Latin conquest of Byzantium and, 14

   Moscow as New Constantinople/New Rome/New Israel and expectations regarding, 9

   popular piety and, 98

Eshliman, Nikolai, 569

Esphigmenou (monastery on Mount Athos), 20,583

Esṭifanos (Ethiopian monk), 469

Estonian Lutherans, 330,331

Ethiopian Christianity, 457–61

   Alexandria, reliance on, 457,460,481

   autocephaly of, 484,486,487

   christological issues in. See Christology

   Confessio Claudii, 477

   diaspora of, 467

   episcopate

     christological controversies and, 478,479–81

     development and indigenisation of, 482–7

     historical overview, 465,466,467

     monasteries and royal court, tension between, 469,470

     royal church, institution of, 472,475

   European travellers to Ethiopia in 19th century, 465

   historical overview of, 461–7

   Islam and, 459,462–3

   Italian occupation, 467,476,483,484

   Jesuit contacts in 17th century, 463, 476–8

   marital practices, 460,469,470

   monasteries and monasticism, role of, 460,461,467–1

   Oromo migrations, effect of, 463,471,474,475,477,478,487

   Orthodox qualities of, 460

   royal church, institution of, 471–6

   royal court, importance of, 467–1

   Sabbath as holy day equal to Sunday, 460,462,470

   Semitic roots of, 460

   Täklä Haymanot. See Täklä Haymanot and Säga doctrine

ethnophyletism, 242,243,246,541–2,593

Eucharist

   Addai and Mari, eucharistic prayer of 534

   Armenian celebration of, 404,413,421

   centrality to lay piety and religious experience in Russia, 363

   Chaldean and Roman Catholic churches, ecumenical dialogue between, 534

   in Coptic Christianity, 508

   frequency of lay people taking communion in medieval period, 84

   hagiography, eucharistic images drawn from, 137

   Heavenly (or Divine or Celestial) Liturgy, iconography of, 137

   icons, 131–4

   manuscripts of liturgy, text and images in, 129–30

   objects associated with celebration of, 130–4

   Old Testament prefigurations of sacrific

Voorwoord

The Cambridge History of Christianity
Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-81113-2 - The Cambridge History of Christianity - Edited by Michael Angold
Frontmatter/Prelims



THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF

EASTERN CHRISTIANITY

This volume brings together in one compass the Orthodox churches of the ecumenical patriarchate – the Russian, Armenian, Ethiopian, Egyptian and Syrian churches. It follows their fortunes from the late Middle Ages until modern times – exactly the period when their history has been most neglected. Inevitably, this emphasises differences in teachings and experience, but it also brings out common threads, most notably the resilience displayed in the face of alien and often hostile political regimes. The central theme of this volume is the survival against the odds of Orthodoxy in its many forms into the modern era. The last phase of Byzantium proves to have been surprisingly important in this survival. It provided Orthodoxy with the intellectual, artistic and spiritual reserves to meet later challenges. The continuing vitality of the Orthodox churches is evident for example in the Sunday School Movement in Egypt and the Zoë brotherhood in Greece.

MICHAEL ANGOLD is a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society and is Professor Emeritus of Byzantine History at the University of Edinburgh. His most recent publications include The Fourth Crusade: Event and Context (2003), Byzantium: The Bridge from Antiquity to the Middle Ages (2001) and Church and Society in Byzantium under the Comneni, 1081–1261 (1995).




THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF

CHRISTIANITY

The Cambridge History of Christianity offers a comprehensive chronological account of the development of Christianity in all its aspects – theological, intellectual, social, political, regional, global – from its beginnings to the present day. Each volume makes a substantial contribution in its own right to the scholarship of its period and the complete History constitutes a major work of academic reference. Far from being merely a history of Western European Christianity and its offshoots, the History aims to provide a global perspective. Eastern and Coptic Christianity are given full consideration from the early period onwards, and later, African, Far Eastern, New World, South Asian and other non-European developments in Christianity receive proper coverage. The volumes cover popular piety and non-formal expressions of Christian faith and treat the sociology of Christian formation, worship and devotion in a broad cultural context. The question of relations between Christianity and other major faiths is also kept in sight throughout. The History will provide an invaluable resource for scholars and students alike.

List of volumes:

Origins to Constantine
EDITED BY MARGARET M. MITCHELL AND FRANCES M. YOUNG

Constantine to c. 600
EDITED BY AUGUSTINE CASIDAY AND FRED NORRIS

Early Medieval Christianity c. 600–c. 1100
EDITED BY THOMAS NOBLE AND JULIA SMITH

Christianity in Western Europe c. 1100–c. 1500
EDITED BY MIRI RUBIN AND WALTER SIMON

Eastern Christianity
EDITED BY MICHAEL ANGOLD

Reform and Expansion 1500–1660
EDITED BY RONNIE PO-CHIA HSIA

Enlightenment, Reawakening and Revolution 1660–1815
EDITED BY STEWART J. BROWN AND TIMOTHY TACKETT

World Christianities c. 1815–1914
EDITED BY BRIAN STANLEY AND SHERIDAN GILLEY

World Christianities c. 1914 to c. 2000
EDITED BY HUGH McLEOD




THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF

CHRISTIANITY

VOLUME 5


Eastern Christianity

Edited by

MICHAEL ANGOLD





CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
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© Cambridge University Press 2006

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First published 2006

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

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ISBN-13 978-0-521-81113-2 hardback
ISBN-10 0-521-81113-9 hardback

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In Memory of Steven Runciman
Dimitri Obolensky and Sergei Hackel




Contents




  List of illustrations xi
  List of maps xii
  List of contributors xiii
  Foreword xvi
  List of abbreviations xix
PART I   THE ECUMENICAL PATRIARCHATE
1   The Byzantine Commonwealth 1000–1500 3
  JONATHAN SHEPARD
2   Byzantium and the west 1204–1453 53
  MICHAEL ANGOLD
3   The culture of lay piety in medieval Byzantium 1054–1453 79
  SHARON E. J. GERSTEL AND ALICE-MARY TALBOT
4   The rise of hesychasm 101
  DIRK KRAUSMŨLLER
5   Art and liturgy in the later Byzantine Empire 127
  NANCY P. ŠEVČENKO
6   Mount Athos and the Ottomans c.1350–1550 154
  ELIZABETH A. ZACHARIADOU
7   The Great Church in captivity 1453–1586 169
  ELIZABETH A. ZACHARIADOU
8   Orthodoxy and the west: Reformation to Enlightenment 187
  PASCHALIS M. KITROMILIDES
9   Bars’kyj and the Orthodox community 210
  ALEXANDER GRISHIN
10   The legacy of the French Revolution: Orthodoxy and nationalism 229
  PASCHALIS M. KITROMILIDES
PART II   THE RUSSIAN CHURCH
11   Russian piety and Orthodox culture 1380–1589 253
  STELLA ROCK
12   Art and liturgy in Russia: Rublev and his successors 276
  LINDSEY HUGHES
13   Eastern Orthodoxy in Russia and Ukraine in the age of the Counter-Reformation 302
  ROBERT O. CRUMMEY
14   The Russian Orthodox Church in imperial Russia 1721–1917 325
  SIMON DIXON
15   Russian piety and culture from Peter the Great to 1917 348
  CHRIS CHULOS
PART III   EASTERN CHRISTIANITIES
16   Eastern Christianities (eleventh to fourteenth century): Copts, Melkites, Nestorians and Jacobites 373
  RANÇOISE MICHEAU
17   The Armenians in the era of the crusades 1050–1350 404
  S. PETER COWE
18   Church and diaspora: the case of the Armenians 430
  S. PETER COWE
19   Church and nation: the Ethiopian Orthodox Täwahedo Church (from the thirteenth to the twentieth century) 457
  DONALD CRUMMEY
20   Coptic Christianity in modern Egypt 488
  ANTHONY O’MAHONY
21   Syriac Christianity in the modern Middle East 511
  ANTHONY O’MAHONY
PART IV   THE MODERN WORLD
22   Diaspora problems of the Russian emigration 539
  SERGEI HACKEL
23   The Orthodox Church and communism 558
  MICHAEL BOURDEAUX AND ALEXANDRU POPESCU
24   Modern spirituality and the Orthodox Church 580
  JOHN BINNS
  Bibliography 600
  Index 679




Illustrations




3.1   St Anastasia the Poison Curer and Anastasia Saramalyna; St Eirene. Panagia Phorbiotissa, Asinou, Cyprus. Photograph by Sharon Gerstel 95
5.1   Epitaphios textile. Victoria and Albert Museum, London. Reproduced by permission of Hirmer Fotoarchiv. 132
5.2   The Communion of the Apostles, Staro Nagoricino. Reproduced by permission of Bildarchiv Foto Marburg. 135
5.3   Gregory of Nazianzos writing his homilies. Mount Sinai, Mss. Gr. 339, fol. 4v. Reproduced through the courtesy of the Michigan-Princeton-Alexandria expedition to Mount Sinai. 140
5.4   Calendar icon for the month of May. Mount Sinai, monastery of St Catherine. Reproduced through the courtesy of the Michigan-Princeton-Alexandria expedition to Mount Sinai. 142
5.5   Akathistos hymn, stanza 24. Markov Manastir, church of St Demetrios. National Museum, Belgrade. Photograph by Jadrenka Prolovic. 149
9.1   Bars’kyj, monastery of Nea Moni on Chios, 1732. Akademiia Nauk Arkhiv, Kiev, v. no. 1062. 214
9.2   Bars’kyj, Docheiariou monastery viewed from the south-west, 1744. Akademiia Nauk Arkhiv, Kiev, v. no. 1062. 223
12.1   Battle of the Novgorodians with the Suzdalians, mid-fifteenth century. Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. Reproduced by permission of The Bridgeman Art Library. 280
12.2   The Holy Trinity (1420s) by Andrei Rublev. Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. Reproduced by permission of The Bridgeman Art Library. 284
12.3   St Basil’s Cathedral, Moscow. Photograph by Lindsey Hughes. 298




Maps




1 The Byzantine Commonwealth Page 4
2 Mount Athos 13
3 Bars’kyj’s travels 211
4 Muscovy 254
5 Eastern churches 374
6 Medieval Armenia 405
7 Ethiopia 458




Contributors




MICHAEL ANGOLD is Professor Emeritus of Byzantine History, University of Edinburgh. Among his publications is Church and society in Byzantium under the Comneni (1081–1261) (1995).

REVD JOHN BINNS is Vicar of Great St Mary’s, Cambridge. Among his publications is An introduction to the Christian Orthodox churches (2002).

CANON MICHAEL BOURDEAUX is Founder and President of Keston Institute, Oxford. Among his many publications are Opium of the people: the Christian religion in the USSR (1965) and Gorbachev, Glasnost and the Gospel (1990).

CHRIS CHULOSis Director of Foundation Relations and Adjunct Professor of History at Roosevelt University, Chicago. He is also a permanent member of the History Faculty at Helsinki University. Among his publications is Converging worlds: religion and community in peasant Russia, 1861–1917 (2003).

S. PETER COWEholds the Narekatsi Chair of Armenian Studies at UCLA. Among his publications are Mxit’ar Sasnec’i’s theological discourses (1993); Catalogue of the Armenian manuscripts in the Cambridge University Library (1994). He is the editor of Ani: world architectural heritage of a medieval Armenian capital (2001).

DONALD CRUMMEY is Professor of African History, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Among his publications are Land and society in the Christian Kingdom of Ethiopia from the 13th to the 20th century (2000) and African savanna environments: global narratives and local knowledge of environmental change (with T. J. Bassett, 2003).

ROBERT O. CRUMMEY is Emeritus Professor of Russian History, University of California, Davis. Among his publications are The Old Believers & the world of Antichrist: the Vyg Community and the Russian state, 1694–1855 (1970) and Aristocrats and servitors: the Boyar elite in Russia, 1613–1689 (1983).

SIMON DIXON Professor of Modern History at the University of Leeds. Among his publications are The modernisation of Russia 1676–1825 (1999) and Catherine the Great (2001).

SHARON E. J. GERSTELis Associate Professor of Byzantine Art and Archaeology, UCLA. Among her publications is Beholding the sacred mysteries: programs of the Byzantine sanctuary (1999).

ALEXANDER GRISHIN is Head of Art History, Australian National University. In 2004 he was elected Fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities. Among his publications are his two-volume The art of John Brack (1990) and A pilgrim’s account of Cyprus: Bars’kyj’s travels in Cyprus (1996).

†ARCHPRIEST SERGEI HACKEL died on 9 February 2005. He combined the work of a parish priest with teaching Russian at the University of Sussex and was a well-known broadcaster. For thirty years he was editor of Sobornost, the journal of the Anglican-Orthodox Fellowship of St Sergius. He was the author of A pearl of great price: the life of Mother Maria Skobstova, 1891–1945 (revised edition 1982).

LINDSEY HUGHES is Professor of Russian History at the School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University of London. Among her publications is Russia in the age of Peter the Great (1998).

PASCHALIS M. KITROMILIDES is Professor of Political Science at the University of Athens and Director of the Institute of Neohellenic Research at the National Hellenic Research Foundation. Among his publications are The Enlightenment as social criticism: Iosipos Moisiodax and Greek culture in the eighteenth century (1992) and Enlightenment, nationalism, orthodoxy: studies in the culture and political thought of south-eastern Europe (1994).

DIRK KRAUSMÜLLER is a Research Fellow at Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection and an Honorary Fellow of Queen’s University Belfast. Among his publications is ‘Conflicting anthropologies in the Christological discourse at the end of Late Antiquity: the case of Leontius of Jerusalem’s Nestorian adversary’, Journal of Theological Studies 56 (2005).

FRANÇOISE MICHEAU is Professor of Medieval Islamic history at Université Paris 1 – Panthéon-Sorbonne and director of CNRS (UMR8167): Islam médiéval-éspaces, réseaux et pratiques culturelles. She is the co-translator of the important Christian Arab chronicles of Yahya ibn Sa id of Antioch and of al-Makin ibn al-’Amid. She has published widely on Arabic medicine and is co-author of Communautés chrétiennes en pays d’Islam (1997).

ANTHONY O’MAHONYis Director of Research at the Centre for Christianity and Interreligious Dialogue, Heythrop College, University of London. Among his publications is Palestinian Christians: religion, politics and society in the Holy Land (1999). He is the editor of Eastern Christianity: studies in modern history, religion and politics (2004).

ALEXANDRU POPESCU is Research Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford. He is the author of Petre Ţuţea: between sacrifice and suicide (2004).

STELLA ROCK was a research fellow at the University of Sussex. She is the co-editor of Nationalist myths and modern media: contested identities in the age of globalization (2006). Her Popular religion in Russia: ‘double belief’ and the making of an academic myth will shortly appear.

NANCY ŠEVČENKOis a Vice President of the Association internationale des études byzantines and Associate Editor of the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Among her publications are The life of Saint Nicholas in Byzantine art (1983) and Illustrated manuscripts of the Metaphrastian menologion (1990).

JONATHAN SHEPARDis a former Fellow of Peterhouse, University of Cambridge, and University Lecturer in Russian History. He is the author with Simon Franklin of The emergence of Rus 750–1200 (1996) and is the editor of the Cambridge History of Byzantium.

ALICE-MARY TALBOTis Director of Byzantine Studies, Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection and Executive Editor of the Oxford dictionary of Byzantium. She edited The correspondence of Athanasius Ⅰ Patriarch of Constantinople (1975) and is the author of Faith healing in late Byzantium (1983) and Women and religious life in Byzantium (2001).

ELIZABETH A. ZACHARIADOUis a Fellow of the Institute for Mediterranean Studies, University of Crete. Among her publications are Trade and crusade: Venetian Crete and the Emirates of Menteshe and Aydin (1300–1415) (1983) and Romania and the Turks (c.1300–c.1500) (1985).





Foreword




by The Archbishop of Canterbury

The average educated westerner is still quite likely to think of Christianity in terms of a basically western Europe-dominated history: the church gradually builds up a centralised system of authority, filling the vacuum left by the fall of the Roman Empire; its ideological monopoly is challenged at the Reformation, and the map of the Christian world is reconfigured; and all the various territories on that map are now engaged in a doubtfully successful struggle with global modernity, except where the newer churches of Africa are mounting a vigorous counter-offensive. Even in some good and sophisticated surveys of world Christianity published in recent years, this remains the dominant picture.

   But Christianity is more various than this begins to suggest. The essays in this volume introduce us to a variety of contexts substantially different from what has just been described. The faith of the Byzantine world had nothing to do with the filling of a political gap; the Roman Empire continued, with an educational system and a lay civil service which did not yield to the clergy the kind of cultural closed shop familiar in the mediaeval west. What is intriguing in this particular story is the spread of Byzantine Christianity not as a tool of ‘empire’ in the crude sense but as the carrier and the ally of a much more subtle process of cultural convergence – the ‘Byzantine Commonwealth’ over whose character a good deal of controversy continues. The Byzantine Christian heartland continued, even when Byzantium was in steep political decline, to nourish kindred but diverse cultural and intellectual projects, of which Muscovite Russia is probably the most influential (and in many ways the most eccentric). It is a record which does not easily fit into most of the ‘faith and culture’ typologies familiar in western theological and historical writing.

   The ‘commonwealth’ of Byzantine Christianity was not only about material culture, political rhetoric and artistic style. It was also a commonwealth of spiritual practice – the liturgy, but also, no less importantly, the monastic life. ‘Hesychasm’, the practice of silent prayer free of ideas and images and grounded in a set of physical disciplines, became, from the fourteenth century to the present day, as clear a sign of the convergent Christian culture of eastern Europe as anything. How far it represented the resurgence and refocusing of a classical spiritual practice and how far it was innovatory and indeed in some ways subversive of such a tradition is a matter of keen debate, and the evidence of this debate can be traced in the pages that follow. In the twentieth century, the hesychast tradition, in ways that might surprise those who know it only through versions of the medieval disputes, has been one of the engines driving intellectual renewal and fresh cultural engagement in historically Orthodox societies like Romania, Greece and Russia.

   But the Byzantine world is only part of the story. For most of their history, nearly all those churches that broke with Byzantium for doctrinal reasons or that had always been outside the political reach of the Empire lived as minorities in a Muslim society. It was not always a nakedly hostile environment, but it brought severe pressures to bear in all kinds of ways. Not least, it meant a continuing tradition of intellectual life conducted in the medium of non-European languages; only relatively recently has the world of Christian Arabic begun to receive the attention it merits. And the importance of these Christian communities in mediating classical Europe to the nascent Islamic culture is hard to exaggerate. No ‘clash of civilisations’ model will do justice to the complex interactions of all these universes of thought. A history of relative isolation and public marginality should not blind us to the substantive role of Christian minorities beyond the Roman and classical frontiers. And the same needs to be said about those churches like the Armenian and Ethiopian that did not live consistently as minorities in a non-Christian environment but experienced something of the same challenge in thinking and expressing their faith in the languages of cultures outside the ‘classical’ world. Looking at their history helps us make some better sense of the phenomena of marginal Christianities in the west, especially in the Celtic context.

   Nor should we be lured into thinking that the schisms of the fifth to the eleventh centuries created hermetically sealed units of Christian discourse. Armenians, Byzantines and Latins participated in the same arguments in the Byzantine court; nearly all the churches of the east at one time or another faced difficult decisions about how far to go in rapprochement with Rome; the choices they made continue to affect relations between the modern churches in acute ways. Whether in the Council of Florence or in the embassy sent from Mongol Iran by Mar Yabh’allaha III to the courts of the west in the thirteenth century, there was always an uncomfortable sense of unfinished business about how to relate with those on the other side of doctrinal and political divisions. Modern ecumenism has roots in a large number of missions and negotiations in the past, and these essays will show something of the variety in that history.

   In modern times, eastern Christianity has suffered once again from being the victim of an imposed minority status in many countries; the trauma of communist domination and persecution has indelibly marked the churches of eastern Europe. But at the same time, many of the most creative theological elements in contemporary western theology can trace their origins to eastern sources, thanks partly, though not exclusively, to the Russian diaspora. For both Roman Catholic and Reformed thinkers, the eastern world has opened new pathways which relativise, even if they do not always solve, the historic standoffs between diverse western concerns, and offer a different and often more flexible vocabulary. Throughout the eastern Christian world today, Byzantine and non-Byzantine, there is an upsurge of new thinking, new artistic energy (think of the extraordinary development in the last few decades of Coptic iconography), and ressourcement in the monastic life. The final chapter in this volume gives a clear picture of the vitality and the wide impact of this renewal. Despite the unhappy and often violent symbiosis in some contexts between Christian rhetoric and uncritical nationalism, despite the fresh difficulties of Christian minorities that have developed as a result of contemporary geopolitics and a high level of tone-deafness in the west to the needs of these minorities, there is plenty of vigour and sophistication. If it is a cardinal temptation of our time to indulge in crass and destructive stereotyping of both Christian and Muslim worlds, forgetting the variety and wealth of their histories, this book, written out of the most painstaking contemporary scholarship, will be an indispensable aid in resisting that temptation. It is an academic tour de force; but far more than a simple academic exercise.

Rowan Williams, Archbishop of Canterbury




Abbreviations




AA Archives de l’Athos
AAE Akty, sobrannye v bibliotekakh i arkhivakh rossiiskoi imperii arkheograficheskoiu ekspeditsieiu imperatorskoi Akademii nauk
AI Akty istoricheskie, sobrannye i izdannye arkheograficheskoiu komissieiu
B Byzantion
BF Byzantinische Forschungen
BMGS Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies
Bsl Byzantinoslavica
BZ Byzantinische Zeitschrift
CA Cahiers Archéologiques
CFHB Corpus fontium historiae byzantinae
ChOIDR Chteniia v Obshchestve istorii i drevnostei rossiiskikh pri Moskovskom universitete (Moscow, 1845–1918)
CNRS Centre national de la recherche scientifique
CSCO Corpus scriptorum christianorum orientalium
CSHB Corpus scriptorum historiae byzantinae
DOP Dumbarton Oaks Papers
DOS Dumbarton Oaks Studies
DOT Dumbarton Oaks Texts
DTC Dictionnaire de théologie catholique
JECCLH Journal of Ecclesiastical History
JThst Journal of Theological Studies
Miklosich and Müller Miklosich, F. and Müller, J., Acta patriarchatus constantinopolitani, 2 vols. (Vienna: Carolus Gerold, 1860–62)
ÖAW Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften
OCA Orientalia christiana analecta
OCP Orientalia Christiana Periodica
ODB Oxford dictionary of Byzantium, ed. A. P. Kazhdan et al., 3 vols. (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1991)
PG Migne, P. G., Patrologiae cursus completus, Series graeca
PLDR Pamiatniki literatury Drevnei Rusi ⅩⅣ–seredina ⅩⅤ veka
PLP Prosopographisches Lexikon der Palaiologenzeit, 13 fasc. (Vienna: ÖAW, 1976–96)
PO Patrologia orientalis
PSRL Polnoe sobranie russkikh letopisei
PSZRI Polnoe sobranie zakonov rossiiskoi imperii
PVL Povest’ Vremennykh Let, ed. V. P. Adrianova-Peretts and D. S. Likhachev, 2nd edn rev. M. B. Sverdlov (St Petersburg: Nauka, 1996)
REB Revue des Études Byzantines
Reg. Les regestes des actes du patriarcat de Constantinople, ed. V. Grumel, V. Laurent and J. Darrouzès, 7 vols. (Paris: Institut français d’études byzantines, 1932–91)
Rhalles and Potles Rhalles, G. A. and Potles, M., Σύv♉α γ μα τῶvθ□ίv Καὶ ἱ□ρῶv ΚαvÓvωv 6 vols. (Athens, 1852–59)
RIB Russkaia Istoricheskaia Biblioteka (St Petersburg: Imperatorskaia arkheograficheskaia kommissiia, 1880), VI
RPK Das Register des Patriarchats von Konstantinopel
RR Russian Review
Sp Speculum
Thomas and Hero Thomas, J. and Hero, Angela, Byzantine monastic foundation documents, 5 vols. (Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2000)
TM Travaux et Mémoires




© Cambridge University Press

Quote

'Scholars we owe a debt of thanks to the editor of this impressive work. Michael Angold, professor emeritus of Byzantine history at the University of Edinburgh, has done a magnificent job of touching on the highlights of Eastern Christianity in its many forms, including the Oriental churches. Chapters on the Copts, Melkites, Nestorians, and Jacobites make this volume a comprehensive history.' International Bulletin of Missionary Research

Inhoudsopgave

Part I. The Ecumenical Patriarchate: 1. The Byzantine commonwealth 1000–1500 Jonathan Shepard; 2. Byzantium and the West 1204–1453 Michael Angold; 3. The culture of lay piety in medieval Byzantium 1054–1453 Sharon E. J. Gerstel and Alice-Mary Talbot; 4. The rise of Hesychasm Dirk Krausmüller; 5. Art and liturgy in the later Byzantine Empire Nancy Ševčenko; 6. Mount Athos and the Ottomans 1350–1550 Elizabeth A. Zachariadou; 7. The Great Church in captivity 1453–1586 Elizabeth A. Zachariadou; 8. Orthodoxy and the West: Reformation to Enlightenment Paschalis M. Kitromilides; 9. Bars'ky and the Orthodox community Alexander Grishin; 10. The legacy of the French Revolution: Orthodoxy and Nationalism Paschalis M. Kitromilides; Part II. The Russian Church: 11. The Russian church: the first centuries 1000–1400 Stephen Rowell; 12. Russian piety and Orthodox culture 1380–1589 Stella Rock; 13. Art and liturgy in Russia: Rublev and his successors Lindsey Hughes; 14. Eastern Orthodoxy in Russia and Ukraine in the age of counter-Reformation Robert O. Crummey; 15. The Russian Orthodox church in Imperial Russia 1721–1917 Simon Dixon; 16. Russian piety and culture from Peter the Great to 1917 Chris Chulos; Part III. Eastern Christianities: 17. East Christianities (11th–14th centuries): Copts, Melkites, Nestorians and Jacobites Françoise Micheau; 18. The Armenians in the era of the Crusades (1050–1350) S. Peter Cowe; 19. Church and Diaspora: the case of the Armenians S. Peter Cowe; 20. Church and nation: the Ethiopian Orthodox Täwahedo church (from the 13th to the 20th century) Donald Crummey; 21. Coptic Christianity in modern Egypt Anthony O'Mahony; 22. Syriac Christianity in the modern Middle East Anthony O'Mahony; Part IV. The Modern World: 23. Diaspora problems of the Russian emigration Sergei Hackel; 24. The Orthodox church and Communism Michael Bourdeaux and Alexandru Popescu; 25. Modern spirituality and the Orthodox church John Binns.

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