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Orogenic Andesites And Plate Tectonics

Orogenic Andesites And Plate Tectonics - Gill, J. B. - ISBN: 9783642680144
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Bindwijze: Boek
Genre: Mijnbouw
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Beschrijving

Students Of A Phenomenon As Common But Complex As Andesite Genesis Often Are Overwhelmed By, Or Overlook, The Volume And Diversity Of Relevant Information. Thus There Is Need For Periodic Overview Even In The Absence Of A Dramatic Breakthrough Which "solves The Andesite Problem" And Even Though New Ideas And Data Keep The Issues In A State Of Flux.

Details

Titel: Orogenic Andesites And Plate Tectonics
auteur: Gill, J. B.
Mediatype: Boek
Taal: Engels
Druk: 1
Aantal pagina's: 392
Uitgever: Springer-verlag Berlin And Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Plaats van publicatie: DE
NUR: Mijnbouw
Afmetingen: 235 x 155
Gewicht: 622 gr
ISBN/ISBN13: 9783642680144
Intern nummer: 23520833

Inhoudsopgave

1 What is "Typical Calcalkaline Andesite"?.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Definition of Orogenic Andesite.- 1.3 Magma Series Containing Orogenic Andesites.- 1.4 Overview.- 2 The Plate Tectonic Connection.- 2.1 Spatial Distribution of Active Orogenic Andesite Volcanoes.- 2.2 Initiation of Subduction.- 2.3 Cessation of Subduction.- 2.4 Collisions.- 2.5 Reversal of Subduction Polarity.- 2.6 Forearc and Transform Fault Volcanism.- 2.7 Anomalously Wide Volcanic Arcs.- 2.8 Andesites Clearly Not at Convergent Plate Boundaries.- 2.9 Conclusions.- 3 Geophysical Setting of Volcanism at Convergent Plate Boundaries.- 3.1 Topography, Gravity, Heat Flow, and Conductivity.- 3.2 Crustal Thickness, Structure, and Age.- 3.3 Upper Mantle Beneath the Forearc, Volcanic Arc, and Backarc Regions.- 3.4 Dipping Seismic Zones (Benioff-Wadati Zones) and Underthrust Lithosphere.- 3.5 Partial Melting and Magma Ascent Beneath Volcanic Arcs.- 3.6 Magma Chambers Beneath Orogenic Andesite Volcanoes.- 3.7 Conclusions.- 4 Andesite Magmas, Ejecta, Eruptions, and Volcanoes.- 4.1 Characteristics of Andesite Magma.- 4.1.1 Temperature.- 4.1.2 Density.- 4.1.3 Rheology.- 4.1.4 Miscellaneous Properties and Applications.- 4.2 Andesite Rock, Eruption, and Edifice Types.- 4.3 Variations in Magma Composition During and etween Historic Andesite Eruptions.- 4.4 Variations in Rock Composition During Evolution of Stratovolcanoes.- 4.5 Conclusions About Andesite Magma Reservoirs.- 4.6 Stress Fields and Volcano Spacings Within Volcanic Arcs.- 4.7 Relationships Between the Timing of Arc Volcanism and Plate Movements.- 4.8 Magma Eruption Rates at Convergent Plate Boundaries.- 4.9 Relative Proportions of Andesite.- 5 Bulk Chemical Composition of Orogenic Andesites.- 5.1 Rock Analyses: Significance, Averages, and Representative Samples and Suites.- 5.2 Major Elements.- 5.2.1 Silica Contents and Harker Variation Diagrams.- 5.2.2 Alkalies.- 5.2.3 Iron and Magnesium.- 5.2.4 Titanium.- 5.2.5 Aluminum and Calcium.- 5.2.6 Phosphorous.- 5.2.7 CIPW Normative Mineralogy.- 5.3 Volatiles.- 5.3.1 Water.- 5.3.2 Carbon Dioxide.- 5.3.3 Sulfur.- 5.3.4 Halogens.- 5.3.5 Oxygen.- 5.4 Trace Elements.- 5.4.1 The K-Group: Rb, Cs, Ba, and Sr.- 5.4.2 REE Group: Rare Earth Elements Plus Y.- 5.4.3 The Th Group: Th,U, and Pb.- 5.4.4 The Ti Group: Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta.- 5.4.5 The Compatible Group: Ni, Co, Cr, V, and Sc.- 5.4.6 The Chalcophile Group: Cu, Zn, and Mo.- 5.4.7 Trace Element Systematics.- 5.5 Isotopes.- 5.5.1 Strontium.- 5.5.2 Lead.- 5.5.3 Neodymium.- 5.5.4 Inert Gases.- 5.5.5 U-Disequilibrium.- 5.5.6 Oxygen.- 5.5.7 Synthesis of Isotope Data.- 5.6 Comparison with Andesites Not at Convergent Plate Boundaries.- 5.7 Geochemical Distinctiveness of Volcanism at Convergent Plate Boundaries.- 5.8 Conclusions: Chemical Diversity of Orogenic Andesites.- 6 Mineralogy and Mineral Stabilities.- 6.1 Plagioclase.- 6.2 Pyroxenes.- 6.3 Amphibole.- 6.4 Olivine.- 6.5 Oxides.- 6.6 Garnet.- 6.7 Other Minerals.- 6.8 Inclusions in Orogenic Andesites.- 6.9 Mineral Stabilities in Andesite Magma.- 6.10 Trace Element Equilibria Between Minerals and Melt.- 6.11 Conclusions.- 7 Spatial and Temporal Variations in the Composition of Orogenic Andesites.- 7.1 Variations in Magma Composition Across Volcanic Arcs.- 7.2 Variations in Magma Composition Along Volcanic Arcs.- 7.3 Effects of Plate Convergence Rate on Magma Composition.- 7.4 Relationships Between Compositions of Orogenic Andesites and Adjacent Oceanic Crust.- 7.5 Changes in the Composition of Orogenic Andesites During Earth History.- 8 The Role of Subducted Ocean Crust in the Genesis of Orogenic Andesites.- 8.1 Characteristics of Subducted Ocean Crust Beneath Volcanic Arcs.- 8.2 Circumstantial Evidence of Slab Recycling in Arc Volcanism.- 8.3 Are Orogenic Andesites Primary Melts of Subducted Ocean Floor Basalt? No.- 8.4 The Sediment Solution.- 8.5 IRS Fluids and Maxwell's Demons.- 8.6 Conclusions.- 9 The Role of the Mantle Wedge.- 9.1 Characteristics of the Mantle Wedge.- 9.2

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