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Metals In The Hydrocycle

Metals In The Hydrocycle - Foerstner, U.; Salomons, Wim - ISBN: 9783642693274
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Bindwijze: Boek
Genre: Mijnbouw
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Beschrijving

Metals in the hydrological cycle represent a very broad subject covering all parts of the geological cycle. The present version of this book, therefore, would not have been possible without the comments and suggestions for improvement on draft ver sions of the various chapters by a large number of colleagues. We wish to express our gratitude to: P.A. Cawse (AERE, UK), J.N. Galloway (University of Virginia, USA) and S.E. Lindberg (Oak Ridge National Labo ratory, USA) for reviewing the chapter on atmospheric trace metals. G. Batley (CSIRO, Australia) and B.T. Hart (Chisholm In stitute of Technology, Australia) for reviewing the chapter on speciation of dissolved metals. E.K. Duursma (Delta Institute, The Netherlands), J.M. Bewers and P.H. Yeats (Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Canada) and D. Eisma (Netherlands Institute for Sea Re search, the Netherlands) for reviewing the chapter on estuaries. P. Baccini (EAWAG, Switzerland) and W. Davison (Fresh water Biological Association, UK) for reviewing the chapter on lakes. E.T. Degens (University of Hamburg, W-Germany) for re viewing the chapter on the oceans, and J.P. Al (Public Works Department, The Netherlands) for reviewing most of the indi vidual chapters. Without the collaboration of these colleagues this book would not have been possible in its present form.

Details

Titel: Metals In The Hydrocycle
auteur: Foerstner, U.; Salomons, Wim
Mediatype: Boek
Taal: Engels
Druk: 1
Aantal pagina's: 352
Uitgever: Springer-verlag Berlin And Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Plaats van publicatie: DE
NUR: Mijnbouw
Afmetingen: 244 x 170
Gewicht: 635 gr
ISBN/ISBN13: 9783642693274
Intern nummer: 23520837

Inhoudsopgave

1 Introduction.- 2 Interactions with Ligands, Particulate Matter and Organisms.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Metal Ions in Aquatic Systems.- 2.3 Speciation of Dissolved Metals.- 2.3.1 Physical Separation.- 2.3.2 ASV-Labile Species.- 2.3.3 Ion-Exchange Methods.- 2.3.4 Speciation Schemes.- 2.4 Interaction with Ligands.- 2.5 Interaction with Particulate Matter.- 2.5.1 Sorption Processes.- 2.5.2 Mechanisms.- 2.5.3 Sorption on Metal Oxides and Organic Substances.- 2.5.4 Sorption of Metal-Organic Complexes.- 2.5.5 Interactions in Natural Systems.- 2.6 Solid Speciation.- 2.7 Metal Interaction with Organisms.- 2.7.1 Metal Uptake by Organisms.- 2.7.2 Solid Speciation and Bioavailability.- 2.7.3 Transformation of Metal by Organisms.- 3 Sediments and the Transport of Metals.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Composition of Sediments.- 3.3 Transport of Sediments.- 3.4 Distribution and Deposition.- 3.5 Grain Size Effects.- 3.6 Anthropogenic Influences on Metal Concentrations in Sediments.- 3.6.1 Background Concentrations.- 3.6.2 Sediment Core Studies.- 3.6.3 Quantification of Environmental Impact.- 3.7 Early Diagenesis of Trace Metal Compounds in Sediments.- 3.7.1 Sampling of Interstitial Waters.- 3.7.2 Diagenetic Environments.- 3.7.3 Diagenetic Mobilization of Trace Metals.- 4 Metals in the Atmosphere.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Natural and Anthropogenic Emissions of Trace Metals.- 4.3 Atmospheric Particles.- 4.4 Deposition of Atmospheric Particles.- 4.5 Metal Concentrations in Urban, Rural and Remote Atmospheres.- 4.6 Environmental Impact of Airborne Trace Metals.- 4.6.1 Terrestrial Ecosystems..- 4.6.2 The Arctic and Antarctic Aerosol.- 4.6.2.1 Concentrations in Arctic and Antarctic Areas.- 4.6.2.2 Seasonal Changes.- 4.6.2.3 Origin of the Arctic Aerosol.- 4.6.3 Metals in the Oceanic Aerosol: Continental or Ocean Derived?.- 4.6.3.1 Formation of the Oceanic Aerosol.- 4.6.3.2 Sea Surface Microlayer.- 4.6.3.3 Composition of the Oceanic Aerosol.- 5 Metals in Continental Waters.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Metals in Rocks and Soils.- 5.2.1 Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks.- 5.2.2 Weathering and Element Migration.- 5.2.3 Chemistry of Sedimentary Rocks.- 5.2.4 Metals in Soils.- 5.2.4.1 Soil Constituents and Metal Binding.- 5.2.4.2 Trace Metal Concentrations in Soils.- 5.2.4.3 Metal Transfer from Soil to Plants.- 5.2.4.4 Problems with River-borne Metal Pollutants on Agricultural Soils.- 5.2.4.5 Land Disposal of Metal-Contaminated Waste Materials.- 5.3 Metals in Rivers.- 5.3.1 Trace Metals in River Water.- 5.3.2 Dissolved and Solid Transport.- 5.3.2.1 Geographical Variability.- 5.3.2.2 Seasonal Variability.- 5.3.3 Metals in River Sediment.- 5.3.3.1 Factors Affecting Compositions.- 5.3.3.2 Variability of Data.- 5.3.3.3 Influence of Grain Size.- 5.3.3.4 Metal Forms.- 5.3.4 Impact of Metals in River Systems.- 5.3.4.1 Distribution of Metal Pollutants.- 5.3.4.2 Historical Evolution.- 5.3.4.3 Metal Budgets and Local Inputs.- 5.3.5 Complexing Agents in River Systems.- 5.4 Metals in Lakes.- 5.4.1 Introduction.- 5.4.2 Accumulative Phases in Lake Sediments.- 5.4.3 Trace Metal Fluxes as Reflected in the Sediments.- 5.4.4 Metals Cycling in Lakes.- 5.4.5 Metals Cycling in Stratified Lakes.- 5.4.6 Atmospheric Inputs in Lakes.- 6 Metals in Estuaries and Coastal Environments.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Estuarine Circulation.- 6.3 Conservative and Non-Conservative Behaviour.- 6.4 Behaviour of Particulate Trace Metals During Estuarine Mixing.- 6.5 Iron and Manganese.- 6.6 Trace Metals in Estuaries: Field Investigations.- 6.7 Trace Metals in Estuaries: Laboratory Investigations and Simulations.- 6.8 Environmental Impact Studies.- 6.8.1 United States Estuaries and Coastal Areas.- 6.8.2 Mediterranean Sea.- 6.8.3 Western Europe.- 6.8.4 Environmental Impact of Metals in Biota.- 6.9 Estuaries as Sinks for Trace Metals?.- 7 Metals in the Ocean.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Vertical and Horizontal Distribution of Trace Metals..- 7.3 Particulates and Metal Behaviour.- 7.4 Composition of Oceanic Sedimen

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