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Geothermal Fluids

Chemistry And Exploration Techniques

Geothermal Fluids - Nicholson, Keith - ISBN: 9783642778469
Prijs: € 113,40
Levertijd: 12 tot 15 werkdagen
Bindwijze: Boek
Genre: Mijnbouw
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Beschrijving

This Book Introduces Aqueous Geochemistry Applied To Geothermal Systems. The First Explains How Geothermal Fluids And Their Associated Chemistry Evolve, And Shows How The Chemistry Of These Fluids Can Be Used To, Deduce Information About The Resource.

Details

Titel: Geothermal Fluids
auteur: Nicholson, Keith
Mediatype: Boek
Taal: Engels
Druk: 1
Aantal pagina's: 263
Uitgever: Springer-verlag Berlin And Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Plaats van publicatie: DE
NUR: Mijnbouw
Afmetingen: 235 x 155
Gewicht: 435 gr
ISBN/ISBN13: 9783642778469
Intern nummer: 23512161

Inhoudsopgave

I Geothermal Fluid Chemistry.- 1 Geothermal Systems.- 1.1 System Types and Characteristics.- Classification.- 1.2 Genesis of Geothermal Fluids.- Origin of water and solutes.- Evolution of geothermal fluids.- Evolution of steam: boiling point-depth relations.- Age of geothermal fluids and geothermal systems.- 1.3 Thermal, Hydrological and Chemical Structure.- Liquid-dominated systems.- Vapour-dominated systems.- 2 Water Chemistry.- 2.1 Water Types.- Chloride.- Sulphate.- Bicarbonate.- Sulphate-chloride.- Dilute chloride-(bicarbonate).- A diagnostic plot of water chemistry.- 2.2 Processes Affecting Water Composition.- Mineral-fluid equilibria.- Boiling (adiabatic) cooling.- Conductive cooling.- Mixing (dilution) with other waters.- 2.3 Interpretation of Water Chemistry.- pH.- Common solutes.- Chemical behaviour of common species.- Chemical indicators of physico-chemical processes.- Statistical analysis of water chemistry.- 2.4 Mixing Models.- Enthalpy - Chloride diagrams.- Enthalpy - silica diagrams.- Carbonate - silica/chloride.- 2.5 Solute Geothermometers.- Silica.- Na/K geothermometer.- Na-K-Ca geothermometer.- Na/Li geothermometer.- K/Mg and Li/Mg geothermometers.- Na-K-Mg geothermometer.- Ca/Mg gt; SO4/F geothermometers for carbonate reservoirs.- 2.6 Calculattng Reservoir Fluid Chemistry.- Heat and mass balance equation.- Steam fraction calculation.- Weirbox composition.- Reservoir fluid composition.- Total discharge (TD) composition.- Reservoir fluid pH.- 3 Gas Chemistry.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Discharge Features.- 3.3 Processes Affecting Steam Composition.- Geothermal system.- Solubility.- Steam formation.- Condensation.- Oxidation.- Rock-steam reactions.- Mineral equilibria and buffering.- Seismicity.- Contamination.- 3.4 Interpretation of Gas Chemistry.- Behaviour of common geothermal gases.- Indicators of physico-chemical processes.- 3.5 Gas Geothermometers.- CO2-H2S-H2-CH4 geothermometer (D'Amore gt; Panichi).- CO-based geothermometer.- CO2-geothermometer.- H2 Ar geothermometer.- gas/?water - based geothermometers.- 4 Isotope Chemistry.- 4.1 Introduction.- Notation.- Standards.- 4.2 Geothermal Applications of Isotopes.- Stable isotope.- Radioactive isotopes.- 4.3 Isotope Geothermometers.- Isotope geothermometry equations.- Oxygen isotope geothermometers.- Hydrogen isotope geothermometers.- Carbon isotope geothermometers.- Sulphur isotope geothermometer.- II Exploration Techniques gt; Surveys.- 5 Exploration Techniques.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Exploration Surveys.- Active systems.- Fossil/epithermal systems.- 6 Water Surveys.- 6.1 Pre-Field Laboratory Preparation.- Collection bottles.- Bottie cleaning.- Sampling equipment.- 6.2 Field Survey.- Mapping springs.- Field notes.- Field measurements.- Selection and prioritizing springs for sampling.- 6.3 Sampling Methods.- Springs and pools.- Wells.- Specialised sampling requirements.- Sample storage.- 6.4 Analytical Methods.- Aluminium.- Ammonia.- Arsenic.- Bicarbonate, Carbonate.- Boron.- Caesium.- Calcium.- Chloride.- Fluoride.- Hydrogen sulphide.- Iodide, Bromide.- Iron.- Lithium.- Magnesium.- Mercury.- pH.- Potassium.- Rubidium.- Silica.- Sodium.- Sulphate.- Total Dissolved Solids.- 6.5 Data Quality and Presentation.- Quality control checks.- Ionic balance.- Mass balance.- Units.- Tabulation of results.- 7 Gas Surveys.- 7.1 Pre-Field Laboratory Preparation.- Sample flasks.- Flask cleaning and preparation.- Sampling equipment.- 7.2 Field Survey.- Selection and prioritizing fumaroles for sampling.- 7.3 Sampling Methods.- Fumaroles.- Gas discharges from pools.- Wells.- General notes on sampling gases Sample storage.- Sample storage.- 7.4 Analytical Methods.- Gas chromatographic determinations.- Wet chemical determinations.- Calculation of gas in the total discharge (TDgas).- 7.5 Gas Concentration Units.- 8 Soil and Soil-Gas Surveys.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Survey Organisation.- Orientation survey.- Sampling grid.- 8.3 Soil Surveys.- Soil sampling.- Sample preparation.-

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