Deze website maakt gebruik van cookies. Klik hier voor meer informatie.X sluit
Uitgebreid zoeken
Boek

Legacies Of Colonial English

Studies In Transported Dialects

Legacies Of Colonial English - ISBN: 9780521830201
Prijs: € 176,85
Levertijd: 12 tot 15 werkdagen
Bindwijze: Boek, Gebonden
Genre: Taalkunde
Boekenliefde.nl:
Legacies Of Colonial English op boekenliefde.nl
Add to cart

Beschrijving

As a result of colonization, many varieties of English now exist around the world. Legacies of Colonial English brings together a team of internationally-renowned scholars to discuss the role of British dialects in both the genesis and subsequent history of postcolonial Englishes. Considering the input of Scottish, English and Irish dialects, they examine a wide range of Englishes - including those in North and South America, South Africa, Asia, Australia, and New Zealand - and explain why many overseas Englishes still reflect non-standard British usage from the distant past.

Details

Titel: Legacies Of Colonial English
Mediatype: Boek
Bindwijze: Gebonden
Taal: Engels
Aantal pagina's: 734
Uitgever: Cambridge University Press
Plaats van publicatie: 03
NUR: Taalkunde
Editor: Hickey, Raymond
Afmetingen: 228 x 152 x 44
Gewicht: 1280 gr
ISBN/ISBN13: 0521830206
ISBN/ISBN13: 9780521830201
Intern nummer: 2104783

Extra informatie

Legacies of Colonial English
Cambridge University Press
0521830206 - Legacies of Colonial English - Studies in Transported Dialects - Edited by Raymond Hickey
Index
More information


Index of names




A. C. Gimson 665

A. J. Aitken 62

A. J. Ellis’ 371

Abbott 124, 140

Abdulaziz 509

abegeral wiluams 145

Abel 543

Abercrombie 74, 75

Abigail Sergeant 149

Abigall Williams 142

Abney 268

Adam Winthrop 135

Adams 71, 87, 91, 314

Adekunle 528

Afendras 567

Agnihotri 543

Aitken 44, 62, 63, 65, 67, 68, 72, 74, 75, 205, 216, 595

Akenson 443

Albrecht Dürer 99

Alexander 41, 124, 134, 135, 136

Alexander Carter 300

Alexander Gil 46

Alexander’s 134

Alfred the Great 537

Algeo 33, 103, 106

Ali 536

Allen 128, 183

Alleyne 326, 334, 340

Allsopp 336, 341

Alsagoff 505

Amery 482

Andersen 15, 177, 178, 186, 351, 460

Anderwald 603

Andrews 331

Andronov 537

Angogo 516, 528

Ann 568

Ann Putnam 142

Ann Putnam Sen 142

Anne Pakir 559, 560, 566

Anthea Gupta 503, 559, 568

Arthur 434, 436

Arthur Philip 419

Ash 269, 270, 273, 275, 278, 319, 320, 423

Asmah 563, 564

Atwood 186, 285, 287, 288, 319, 614

Aubrey 331

Avis 60, 593

B. C. Yancey 298

B. Kachru 536, 539, 540, 541, 542, 544, 545, 546, 547, 554

Bacon-Shone 572

Bailey 4, 6, 50, 159, 160, 168, 181, 185, 189, 194, 205, 206, 210, 262, 263, 264, 265, 268, 270, 271, 272, 274, 276, 277, 278, 279, 284, 285, 287, 288, 289, 290, 293, 297, 298, 300, 302, 329, 486, 536, 590

Bailey’s 273, 277, 290, 297, 298

Baker 328, 330, 332, 352, 456, 461, 462, 463, 465, 468, 471, 476, 478, 479, 480, 481, 482, 487, 488, 489, 491, 506

Baker’s 477, 479, 487, 490, 493

Bamgbose 527, 528

Banim 348, 350

Banjo 527

Bansal 544, 545

Bao 505, 569

Barber 122, 124, 147, 148, 149, 204, 592, 594

Bardon 103

Bartlett 68, 73, 75, 76

Batibo 338, 516, 518

Batterham 448, 453

Bauer 19, 73, 75, 263, 280, 292, 413, 450, 451, 453

Bauer’s 449

Baugh 139, 158

Baumgardner 536, 551, 552

Bautista 504, 577, 578

Bayard 452

Beal 35, 47, 68, 102, 601, 602, 605, 607, 608, 609, 610

Beckett 195, 196

Beckles 33, 45, 329

Beier 160, 352

Bell 408, 449, 452, 453

Bellich 440, 444, 446

Ben Jonson 45, 347

Beniemin huchension 145

Benson 505, 563, 574

Bentley 440

Benton 436

Bermejo-Giner 3, 52

Bernard 430

Bernard’s 431

Beth Simon 59

Bex 504

Bickerton 204, 214, 216, 328, 334, 336

Bishop Lowth 665

Blank 100

Blench 340

Blethen 104

Bligh 485

Bligh’s 467

Bliss 3, 90, 92, 252, 329, 347, 462, 483

Bloch 543

Bloom 567

Bobda 529

Boberg 423

Boberg’s 423

Bolt 572, 573

Bolton 504, 505, 506, 507, 514, 559, 560, 570, 571, 572, 573, 574

Borowsky 44, 432

Boucicault 348

Boyer 135

Boylan 350

Bradley 43, 411, 591

Braidwood’s 71

Braj Kachru 503, 504, 536, 541, 543, 548

Branford 8, 9, 19, 60, 380, 381, 597

Brass 550

Breatnach 45

Breen 130

Brewer 204, 216

Bright 536

Brit Mæhlum’s 407

Britain 61, 64, 65, 411, 414, 594

Brooks 267, 272, 280

Brooks’ 267, 281

Brorström 186

Brown 76, 268, 272, 319, 565, 567

Brown’s 273

Brunberg 90

Brunner 205

Brutt-Griffler 507

Bruyn 331

Burchfield 47, 599, 600, 601, 610

Burde 536

Burnell 546

Burridge 432

Burrowes 336, 341

Butler 505

Butters 34, 41, 51, 285, 287, 601, 606

Byrne 86

Cahill 86

Cain 542

Camden 466, 470, 474, 481

Cameron 404, 408, 415

Campbell 128, 131, 210, 331, 332

Canny 33

Captain Bligh 484

Captain Cook 493

Captain William Bligh 462, 483

Cardell 59

Cardinal Wolsey 160

Carleton 350

Carver 6, 13, 20, 264, 292, 293, 315, 316, 614

Cary 194

Cassidy 42, 60, 264, 288, 289, 318, 327, 477

Catford 62

Cedergren 192

Chaklader 536

Chambers 14, 64, 108, 133, 193, 420, 421, 594

Chapman 160

Chappell 461, 466, 480, 482

Charbonneau 11

Charles 90

Charles Adam Corbyn 427

Charles Dickens 44

Charles Fox 539

Charles Green 485

Charles Hart 466

Charles II 538

Charles Parnell 92

Charles-James Bailey 315

Charpentier 476

Cheshire 184, 204, 603

Chief Tembinok 483

Childs 195

Ching 289

Chishimba 509

Chomsky 660

Christian 6, 160, 291, 602, 607

Christine Williams 559

Churchill 480, 481, 483, 484, 488

Clark 449, 457, 460, 462, 474

Clark, Mühlhäusler and Amery 483

Clarke 2, 12, 14, 23, 38, 41, 46, 47, 48, 53, 106, 107, 108, 138, 207, 209, 210, 211, 212, 216, 218, 247, 253, 254, 263, 424, 598, 611, 663, 666, 670

Clarke’s 208

Claxton 140

Clyne 431

Coelho 543

Colbourne 247, 248, 251, 252, 254, 255

Coldham 162

Collinson 482, 486

Comrie 207, 216, 536, 548

Cook 462

Cook’s 467

Cooley 43, 132

Corbyn 427

Cornelius Hewett 138

Corrigan 92, 95

Cowling 205

Cox 431, 596

Crewe 567

Crismore 563

Cromwell 109

Cromwell’s 336

Cromwellian 86, 343

Crowley 461, 462, 470, 473, 477, 481, 482, 484, 487, 488, 489, 490, 492, 493, 494

Crozier 51, 265, 314

Cruise 462

Cruz 577

Crystal 503

Cukor-Avila 159, 160, 168, 205, 265

Cullen 33

Cumming 59

Cunningham 423

Curme 204, 205, 344

Curtis 86

D. Maclagan 451

D’Souza 542

Daniel Jones 665

Daniel O’Connell 92, 106

Dannenberg 21, 71, 172, 175, 181, 186, 191, 194, 291

Dasgupta 536

David Gegeo 490

David Sutcliffe 158

David W. Gegeo 456

Davidson 542

Davis 315

de Klerk 13, 508

Dehua Sun 559

Delano’s 461

Delbridge 11, 373, 432

DeMarse 158, 206, 268

Demos 130

Dening 460, 467, 484, 486

Deterding 567, 568

Dhamothara 536

Dial 175

Dickens 45

Dickson 316

Dickson’s 333

Dillard 126, 317

Dillon 249, 250

Dimmendaal 520

Dineen 489

Dion 348

Dion Dion Boucicault 349

Dixon 432, 433, 434, 435, 436

Dize 175

Dobson 589

Docherty 590

Dolan 3, 90

Dooley 84

Dorian 196, 408

Dorril 265

Dowling 91

Doyle 316

Drechsel 461, 463

Druett 462, 464, 482, 483, 489, 494

Dube 160

Duffy 87, 104

Dunn 331, 337

Dutton 434, 473, 479, 488

Dwight 462

Eades 472

Earl of Ormond 85

Edgar Schneider 326, 503, 559, 586

Edgeworth 350

Edmund Burke 539

Edward ‘Ned’ Young 485

Edward Barnes 553

Edward Gibbon Wakefield 441

Edward VI 160

Edward Young 469

Edward Young’s 477

Edwards 87, 100, 104, 105, 106, 284, 289, 601, 609

Eggington 506

Ehret 7

Ehrhart-Kneher 472, 477, 492, 493, 494

Eisikovits 431

Eitner 606

Ekwall 144, 589, 592, 595, 596

Eliades 175

Eliason 268, 272, 273, 274, 279, 280, 287, 289

Eliason’s 279, 287, 300

Eliz: Hubberd 136

Elizabeth Gordon 18

Elizabeth Hubbard 142

Elizabeth I 537

Elizabeth Stenson’s 489

Elizabeth Ward Saltonstall 139

Elliot 268

Ellis 3, 44, 158, 206, 290, 372, 378, 383, 409, 411

Ellis’ 37

Elms 14

Elworthy 216, 344

Emeneau 544

Erik 273

Evans 505

Ewers 257

Fasold 158, 160, 203

Feagin 205, 265, 267, 271, 280, 283, 285, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 492, 605, 606

Feagin’s 285, 288

Fennell 51, 285, 287

Fenton 71, 317, 318, 319

Ferguson 460, 536

Fernando 553

Fields 334

Filppula 3, 9, 90, 95, 98, 342

Finkenstaedt 148

Fischer 69, 183, 320

Fisher 588, 590

Fishman 536

Fisiak 124

Fletcher Christian 485

Foley 566, 567

Forby 140, 144

Foster 103, 130

Foulkes 590

Francis Olmsted 462, 489

Frederick Jackson Turner’s 312

Fries 147

Fuller 48, 158, 160, 206, 210, 211, 217, 268

Fynes Morison 2

G. F. Hoar 125

Görlach 9, 36, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 139, 262, 284, 292, 366, 509, 528, 547

Galenson 128

Gegeo 492

George Augustus Robinson 483

George Farquhar 347

George Hempl 311

George Jacobs 136

George Philip Krapp 312

George Puttenham 36

Gerald of Wales 83

Giles 16

Gisborne 573, 574

Gladstone 34

Glassie 315

Glauser 62

Godfrey 209, 210, 216

Gonzalez 512, 576, 577, 579

Goodman Pilsbury 141

Gopinathan 567

Gordon 9, 12, 17, 18, 19, 43, 44, 53, 264, 302, 410, 412, 414, 430, 431, 446, 451, 453, 660, 661, 662, 664, 668

Gordon Handcock 242

Gough 530

Governor Moody 404

Grabe 568

Graham 440, 442, 445, 446, 447

Gramley 552, 570

Grant 293, 267, 463

Green 172, 175, 181, 195, 345, 590, 607, 612

Greene 98, 126

Gregg 60, 64, 66, 67, 69, 72, 74, 87, 108, 410

Gregg’s 70

Grenoble 175

Greven, Jr 130

Grund 134

Guilfoyle 329

Gumperz 536

Gupta 505, 542, 567

Guy 21, 189, 192, 414, 512

Guy Bailey 273

H. Ritchie 450

H. T. Prinsep 540

Hackenberg 205

Halimah 564

Hall 60, 288, 289, 318, 481

Halle 660

Halpert 247, 248, 249, 252, 254, 255, 256

Hamilton 60

Hancock 44, 109, 265, 327, 331, 333, 334, 335, 516, 528

Handcock 242, 245

Handler 332, 333, 334, 335

Hans Kurath 266, 311, 322

Haque 536

Harlowe 332

Harold 366

Harrington 126

Harris 22, 52, 68, 251, 326, 328, 337, 346, 347, 351, 590, 591, 593, 595, 596, 601, 602, 603, 606, 607, 609, 610, 611, 612, 613

Hartford 536

Hartley 16

Harvie 4, 609

Haslerud 431

Hatch 161

Hazen 158, 172, 175, 178, 195

Hempl 614

Henretta 130

Henry 83, 89, 205, 608

Henry Flynt 148

Henry II 84

Henry VIII 85, 103

Henry VIII’s 160

Herman Melville 485

Herzog 302

Heslinga 88

Heugh 530

Heuser 88, 89

Hewlett 68

Heywood 485

Hibbert 160

Hickey 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 16, 18, 22, 23, 24, 33, 38, 40, 43, 45, 46, 48, 50, 52, 53, 66, 82, 86, 88, 89, 90, 92, 93, 94, 95, 97, 99, 107, 108, 110, 138, 248, 250, 251, 252, 253, 255, 257, 258, 273, 284, 327, 330, 340, 343, 347, 348, 351, 352, 427, 428, 429, 431, 491, 544, 587, 589, 591, 594, 597, 598, 599, 601, 604, 605, 607, 608, 611, 612, 615, 654, 655, 656, 657, 658, 659, 660, 661, 662, 663, 664, 665, 666, 667, 668, 669, 670

Hill 328, 509

Hilliard 485

Hiltunen 134

Hirst 422

Ho 25, 503, 511, 512, 515, 516, 517, 519, 520, 521, 522, 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, 559, 564, 567, 569, 570, 577, 578

Hogan 90

Hollett 251

Holm 60, 109, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 332, 335, 336, 338, 339, 340, 345, 590, 609, 613, 614

Holmes 449

Holmqvist 204

Hopkins 542

Hopwood’s 371

Horace Walpole 552

Horvath 368, 408, 413, 421, 427, 428, 431, 432

Hosali 546

Houck 315

House 102

Houston 426

Houston’s 423

Howay 488

Howe 4

Hsia 565

Huber 328, 333, 352, 462, 509, 528

Hugh McCauly’s 298

Hugh Parson’s 145

Hughes 3, 76, 204

Hume 162

Hundt 448

Hung 573, 574

Hyland 572

Ihalainen 4, 23, 38, 44, 46, 47, 133, 205, 330, 588, 602, 604

Increase Mather 142, 143, 144, 146

Irwin 89

Isaac Ball 300

Isaac Martin 477

J. C. Doyal 298

J. J. Hogan 95

J. Milroy 51

Jacob Poole 90

James 90, 553, 664, 667

James Brooke 561

James Cook 456, 460, 485

James Cordiner 553

James Dixon 430

James I 87

James I’s 316

James II 87

James Milroy 320

James Morrison’s 467

Jan Tillery 289

Jeames How 139

Jeans 481, 489, 491

Jeremiah 204, 381

Jeremiah Goldswain 374

Jeremiah Hogan’s 90

Jernegan 137

Jespersen 5, 204, 205, 591, 596, 599

Jibril 517, 529

Joan Beal 59

Joel Chandler Harris’ 267

Johannah Childin 137

John 84, 348

John Adams 468, 485

John Banim 90

John Cabot 33

John Cotton 131, 144, 146

John Cotton’s 132, 133, 150

John Durant Breval 347

John Eliot 131

John Holm 349

John Mannion 242

John Michelbourne 347

John Millington Synge 348

John Mills 477

John Ray 44

John Rickford 326, 338, 341

John Singler 6

John T. Perkins 483

John Walker 659

John Williams 485

John Wilson 131

John Wilson’s 140

John Winthrop 147

John Winthrop’s 130, 135

Johnson 51, 161, 162, 315, 475

Johnston 62, 63, 68, 71

Johnston’s 63

Jones 61, 249, 250

Josef Schmied 503, 519

Joseph L. Chester 125

Jourdan 471, 472, 482, 493

Jowitt 515, 528

Judith Snowsell 150

Julius Vogel 443

K. K. Sridhar 547

Kachru 25, 504, 505, 507, 523, 536, 540

Kahane 505

Kaldor 432

Kallen 89, 97, 186, 191, 254

Kam 567

Kandiah 506, 536, 554, 567

Karat 536

Kashoki 528

Kaufman 21

Kautzsch 265, 341

Kay 194

Keesing 460, 462, 470, 476, 480, 491

Kennedy 552

Kenyon 660

Kerswill 407, 420

Khanna 543

Kiernan 422

Kiesling 11, 12, 110, 422, 431, 457, 667

King 449

King Binoka’s 472

Kingsley Bolton 503

Kingsley Kingsley Bolton 568

Kingsley Kirk 23

Kirk 71, 109, 318, 345, 346, 350, 612

Kirwin 108, 246, 249, 251, 252

Kiswahili 529

Klemola 140, 326, 344, 346, 602

Knick 172, 175, 181

Kniezsa 428

Knott 660

Knowles 73, 101

Kohler 74

Krapp 41, 125, 138, 139, 140, 144, 264, 273

Krapp’s 312

Kretzschmar 49, 84

Krishnamurti 544, 549

Krishnaswamy 536

Kuiper 453

Kuo 567

Kurath 52, 124, 125, 126, 130, 136, 183, 263, 265, 266, 269, 270, 271, 272, 275, 276, 277, 278, 290, 292, 311, 312, 313, 316, 319, 320, 592, 593, 594, 614

Kurath’s 84, 125, 277, 281, 297, 312, 313, 315, 321, 322, 323

Kurath’s puzzle 314

Kwan-Terry 569, 570

Kwok 573

Kytö 17, 41, 42, 46

L. Milroy 132

L. W. Lanham 373

L. W. Payne 267

Labov 19, 52, 187, 192, 204, 215, 265, 269, 270, 273, 274, 275, 278, 302, 322, 329, 343, 418, 423, 426, 593, 606, 611, 612

Labov’s 430

Lady Augusta Gregory 348

Laferriere 106

Lakoff 475

Lanari 247, 253, 256, 258

Lanari’s 253, 255

Lanham 11, 13, 373, 408, 429

Lass 11, 13, 19, 24, 35, 37, 40, 41, 244, 263, 365, 367, 369, 370, 373, 374, 375, 379, 380, 381, 383, 408, 592, 594, 595, 598, 600, 603, 605, 607, 613, 656, 660, 661, 667, 668

Lass’ 267

Lawrence 487

Lawson 34, 537, 542

Laycock 468

Laycock’s 468

Layton 481

Le Page 210, 329, 331, 472, 477

Lee 462, 481, 490, 505

Leer 365

LePage 60

Lesley Milroy 664, 667

Lewis 12, 18, 447, 547

Leyburn 316, 317

Li 572

Lick 505

Ligon 331

Lim 570

Ling 567

Linguistic Atlas of England 269

Lippi-Green 177

Lipski 265, 284

Littlefield 109

Llamzon 559, 576, 577

Lloyd 34

Lockridge 130, 137

Long 21, 381, 591

Lord Stanley 404

Louis 33

Lowenberg 507, 564, 565

Luke 572

Lydon 86

Mühlhäusler 433, 434, 468, 474, 475, 482, 484, 488, 489

Mühlhäusler’s 471

Macafee 14, 33, 40, 59, 61, 62, 63, 66, 72, 73, 87, 314, 317, 660, 666

Macaulay’s 541

MacCallum 462

MacCurtain 86

Macdonald 373, 408, 447

Mackaness 485

Maclagan 12, 18, 412, 414, 453

MacRaild 100

Mæhlum 407

Magnus Huber 326, 327, 340

Majewicz 8

Malcolm 21, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436

Malcolm Ritchie 450

Mannion 12, 107, 242, 245, 246

Marckwardt 121, 140, 271, 292, 614

Marckwardt’s 262

Maria Edgeworth 90, 348, 349

Maria Lourdes Marina Dossena 61

Markku Marshall 33

Marshall 486

Martin 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 160, 605, 608, 609

Martinec 403

Mary Brewster 461

Mary Walcott 142

Masica 536, 544, 548

Mather 66

Matiki 505

Matthew Quintal 468

Matthews 43, 50, 133, 135, 330, 481

Matthews’ 50

Maurice Cuffe 347

Maurice FitzGerald 83

Maynor 159, 160, 168, 175, 185, 194, 265, 268, 290

McArthur 504, 507, 510, 511, 536, 537, 540, 542, 543, 544, 546, 550, 551, 552, 553, 559, 561, 563, 564, 567, 568, 569, 570, 574, 577, 578

McArthur 579, 610

McCafferty 246, 594, 607, 609, 612, 613

McClive 176

McClure 43, 47, 589, 591, 592, 593, 595, 597, 600, 605

McClure’s 75

McCormick 374

McDavid 52, 263, 264, 266, 269, 272, 274, 293, 592, 593, 594

McDavid Jr 138

McDavid’s 266, 269, 317

McGrath 11

McGregor 69

McIntosh 89, 205

McKinnon 445

McMillan 262, 264, 284

McWhorter 332, 333

Medeiros 268, 271

Mehrotra 536

Melo 6, 263, 268, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 298

Melville 462

Mencken 146, 147, 493

Mercy Lewis 142

Mesthrie 14, 47, 285, 374, 505, 509, 513, 539, 601, 604, 606, 610, 611

Meurman-Solin 62, 204

Michael Montgomery 59, 60, 121, 158, 265, 345, 586

Michael Wigglesworth 143, 148

Mihalic 474, 480

Mihalic’s 470

Millar 61, 71, 76

Miller 8, 11, 47, 76, 103, 104, 319, 600, 601, 604, 605, 608

Milroy 16, 72, 124, 132, 174, 205, 284, 589, 593, 608, 609

Minkova 426

Mishoe 51, 71, 185, 285, 290, 319, 321

Mitchell 11, 373, 432

Montgomery 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 13, 23, 38, 40, 41, 43, 47, 48, 49, 51, 52, 59, 60, 61, 66, 68, 69, 76, 82, 84, 87, 90, 103, 104, 105, 106, 108, 109, 121, 122, 123, 126, 132, 136, 140, 148, 158, 160, 177, 183, 184, 185, 196, 205, 206, 210, 211, 217, 263, 266, 268, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 284, 285, 286, 287, 289, 290, 293, 297, 298, 310, 315, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 345, 346, 350, 590, 591, 592, 594, 596, 601, 602, 603, 605, 606, 609, 612, 614, 662, 666

Montgomery’s 263

Moody 83, 84, 85, 86, 87

Moore 84, 543

Moorehead 467

Morais 564

Morgan 131

Morris 478

Morton 481

Mosel 470, 473

Moverley 471, 472, 473, 474, 477

Moxley 268

Mufwene 13, 163, 182, 320, 326, 332, 334, 405, 441, 587, 589, 604, 606, 607, 608

Mufwene’s 405

Mulder 432

Murison 267, 293

Murray 76, 205, 318, 320, 493

Mustanoja 205

Myhill 47

N. C. Burt 311

Nabahon 559

Nagle 51, 285, 286, 287, 319

Nathaniel Saltonstall 143

Nelson 504, 505, 573, 574

Nemec 245

Nevalainen 90, 132, 138, 159, 163, 204

New Zealand English Gordon 19

Newbrook 521, 564, 567

Newlin 59

Nihalani 546

Nissenbaum 135

Nist 147

Noah Webster 43, 297, 310

Noseworthy 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 257, 258

O’Brien 422

O’Callaghan 331

O’Connor 100

Ó Dónaill 51

O’Donovan 350

O’Farrell 422

O’Gallagher 11

O’Leary 100

Odlin 92, 93

Ogura 158

Ohannessian 528

Oliver 462, 483

Oliver Cromwell 87, 100, 329, 331, 538

Oliver Goldsmith 347

Ó Muirithe 3, 90

Ooi 567

Orbeck 124, 125, 133, 135, 136

Orton 184, 269

Orton’s 264

Osakwe 506

Ó Sé 98

Oxendine 172, 175, 181

P. L. Henry 95

P. W. Joyce 95

Paddock 247, 250, 253

Paddock’s 251, 255

Padolsky 107

Page 442

Pakir 505, 507, 566, 567

Palethorpe 596

Pandit 536

Parakrama 536

Parkvall 327, 331, 335

Parry 293

Pascasio 577

Pastor Wilson 140

Pattanayak 536

Pederson 44, 183, 264, 291, 293, 588, 593, 599

Peikola 134

Peitsara 133, 140, 141, 143, 144, 145, 146, 149, 150

Peng 568, 573

Pennycook 540, 571

Perceval-Maxwell 69, 316

Percy 158, 493

Peter Heywood’s 467

Peter Trudgill 18, 121, 142, 144, 145, 150, 654, 667

Philip II 574

Philip Robinson 59

Phillips 272

Pitts 204, 216

Platt 25, 503, 511, 512, 515, 516, 517, 519, 520, 521, 522, 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, 559, 562, 563, 564, 567, 568, 569, 570, 571, 572, 573, 577, 578

Pomfret 130

Poole 3

Poplack 6, 9, 48, 158, 160, 173, 174, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 215, 216, 217, 244, 249, 263, 265, 525, 656, 657, 658 660, 665, 668, 670

Porter 445, 447

Poussa 330

Power 8

Poyer 466

Pratt 60

Prest 130

Preston 10, 262

Pride 25, 503

Pringle 107

Purves 68

Quinn 448

Rahman 536, 551

Raja Rammohan Roy 540

Ramisch 205, 216

Ramson 60, 433, 477, 478, 479

Rand 214

Raumolin-Brunberg 132, 138, 159, 163, 204

Rawick 204

Raychaudhuri 542

Raymond Hickey 121, 145, 418

Read 317

Reed 264

Reid 247, 253

Reinecke 335, 468, 474

Reverend John Whitherspoon 297

Rey 4

Riaz 566

Richard Allsopp 60

Richard Brinsley Sheridan 347

Richard Dumme Richard Head 347

Richard Henry Dana Jr 485, 489

Richard Henry Dana Jr’s 490

Richard II 84

Richard Stanyhurst 8

Richard Strongbow 83

Richards 567, 570, 572

Rickford 23, 47, 109, 265, 326, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 337, 341, 343, 345, 351, 352, 612

Rickford’s 329

Risk 86

Rissanen 134, 164, 165

Robert Clive 538

Robert Hollett 242

Robert Keayne 144

Robert Keayne’s 132

Robert Louis Stevenson 462, 472, 483

Roberts 216, 329, 457, 461, 462, 469

Robinson 60, 70, 71, 104, 318, 602

Robinson’s 71

Robson 420, 423

Rochecouste 436

Roger Byam 467

Roger Lass 659

Rogers 252, 255

Romaine 4, 146, 147, 341, 456, 464, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 478, 484, 486, 487, 491, 492, 493, 665, 668

Romilly 463

Rose 434

Rosenthal 134

Ross 6, 50, 159, 160, 206, 210, 263, 274, 285, 287, 288, 289, 471, 472, 473, 474, 477

Roy 329

Rumsey 433

Rushton 489

Rutman 130, 131

Rydén 130, 186

Sabban 186, 191

Saghal 536

Salerno 128

Sali Tagliamonte 6, 602

Salikoko Mufwene 158

Salikoko Salikoko Mufwene 660

Samimy 507

Samuel Butler 446

Samuel Dill 488

Samuel Parris 146

Samuel Sewall 141, 142, 150

Samuel Sewall’s 142

Samuell Wilknes 143

Samuels 89, 124

Sand 181, 272, 274, 277, 278, 279

Sandefur 434

Sanderson 269

Sandra Clarke 158

Sandved 124

Sankoff 173, 192, 209, 214

Sapir 174

Sarah Mountfort 150

Saravanan 567

Sato 473

Schendl 205

Schilling-Estes 4, 6, 7, 15, 16, 23, 24, 121, 122, 136, 172, 175, 177, 178, 181, 184, 187, 189, 193, 244, 247, 258, 265, 275, 422, 423, 588, 589 590, 591, 592, 594, 596, 597, 598, 599, 600, 603, 604, 606, 607, 609, 610, 611, 612, 614, 655, 659, 660, 662, 666

Schmied 14, 509, 513, 516, 518, 519, 521, 523, 526, 528, 529, 530, 539

Schneider 25, 48, 49, 121, 158, 160, 204, 215, 262, 264, 265, 268, 284, 288, 292, 298, 301, 327, 328, 330, 333, 334, 336, 339, 512, 527, 530, 547, 567, 569, 576, 654

Schneider’s 204

Schreier 20, 428, 506, 514, 591, 662, 668

Schumann 351

Scobbie 68

Sean O’Casey 47, 348

Selby 175

Sellers 184

Setter 573

Shakespeare 46, 100, 491, 493, 605

Shakespeare’s 609

Shamin 552

Shana Poplack 602

Sheridan 3, 39, 90, 93, 588

Sheridan’s 3, 43

Shilling 60

Shores 185

Shorrocks 205, 216

Sibayan 576

Siegel 457, 467, 470

Siew 564

Simon 76

Simpson 426, 434, 443, 446

Singh 536

Singler 7, 160, 173, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 215, 216, 219, 528

Singler’s 208

Sir Joseph Banks 485

Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles 561, 566

Sir Walter Scott 90

Sledd 270, 278

Smith 69, 268, 271, 272, 274, 284, 285, 287, 289, 293, 484

Sommer 158, 160

Sommerfelt 82, 86

Soo 563

Souden 128

Spencer 175

Spitzbardt 536

Sridhar 536, 542, 547

Stein 158, 204, 211, 215

Stephen Reynolds 488

Stephenson 271

Stevenson 462, 463, 472

Stick 175

Story 60, 249

Strang 204, 251

Strange 405

Stuart 486

Sudbury 20, 406, 410, 413, 506, 514, 660, 662, 668

Sullivan 89, 90

Susanna Shelden 142

Susannah Wade 148

Sweet 205

Swindell 175

T. M. Devine 59

Tabouret-Keller 210, 329

Tagliamonte 6, 9, 23, 48, 158, 160, 173, 186, 191, 192, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 215, 216, 217, 244, 249, 263, 265, 525

Tagliamonte 656, 657, 658, 660, 665, 668, 670

Tahiti 462

Tamburro 158, 195

Tan 570

Tay 567, 570

Taylor 158, 331, 428

Teng 567

Terry Walker 121

Thomas 24, 172, 175, 181, 195, 319, 433, 527, 590, 603

Thomas B. Macaulay 540

Thomas Dekker 347

Thomas Hooker 131

Thomas Randolph 347

Thomas Ruffin 300

Thomas Shadwell 347

Thomas Sheridan 659

Thomason 21, 95, 196, 197

Thompson 123, 130, 131

Thumboo 506

Tickoo 567

Tillery 181, 262, 297

Todd 509, 528

Tollfree 427, 431

Tongue 546, 565, 567

Torbert 195

Tottie 4, 609

Traugott 345

Travers 422

Trehearne 404

Trinidad 333

Troike 4, 250, 598

Troy 428, 434

Trudgill 9, 10, 12, 16, 17, 18, 19, 35, 36, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 51, 60, 61, 64, 65, 72, 76, 121, 124, 126, 133, 136, 138, 142, 183, 184, 189, 195, 196, 204, 244, 247, 253, 255, 258, 264, 281, 284, 289, 302, 338, 407, 410, 411, 412, 413, 422, 430, 431, 441, 447, 449, 450, 451, 452, 453, 506, 588, 590, 591, 592, 593, 596, 597, 598, 601, 602, 609, 610, 660, 661, 662, 664, 668

Trudgill’s 258, 301, 410

Trugill 53

Tryon 466, 476, 479

Tsuzaki 474

Tulloch 59, 429

Tulsi 536

Turk 68

Turner 47, 331, 441, 446, 601

Upton 5, 37, 38, 49, 102, 249, 293, 587, 588, 589, 592, 596, 601

Ussher 144

Valentine 547

Vallancey 3, 90

van der Walt 508

van Rooy 508

Vaux 489

Vaux’s 477

Vennemann 82

Verma 536

Viereck 122, 126, 128, 133, 160, 205, 216

Visser 267

Vonwiller 414

Wagner 104

Wait Winthrop 143

Wakelin 40, 44, 124, 126, 133, 134, 138, 143, 144, 147, 149, 205, 209, 248, 249, 252, 254, 255, 256, 411, 412, 590, 596, 600, 601, 602

Walker 148, 149, 206, 217, 588

Wang 158

Warren 431

Watermeyer 598, 604, 606, 610

Watts 504

Webelhuth 291

Weber 25, 503, 511, 512, 515, 516, 517, 519, 520, 521, 522, 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, 559, 564, 577, 578

Webster 310, 567

Wee 505, 569, 570

Weinreb 160

Weinreich 196, 302

Wells 3, 61, 64, 73, 101, 109, 248, 250, 251, 252, 254, 255, 257, 269, 270, 271, 272, 274, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 337, 338, 339, 372, 374, 378, 409, 410, 425, 430, 431, 471, 577, 587, 588, 589, 590, 592, 593, 594, 596, 597, 599, 662

Wells’ 63, 251, 368, 375, 377

Weltens 284, 289, 330

Wentworth 60

Whaley 175

Whinnom 575

Whinnom’s 467

Whiteley 509

Widdowson 5, 37, 38, 49, 102, 247, 248, 249, 252, 255, 256, 269, 293, 587, 588, 589, 592, 596, 601

Widdowson’s 254

Wikle 181, 272, 274, 277, 278, 279

William Barnes 90

William Bradford 145

William Carleton 90, 348

William Carlton 92

William Congreve 347

William Gerrard 85

William Hubbard 146

William III 87

William J. Meadow 300

William Labov 667

William Marsters 469

William McCoy 468, 477

William Person 161

Williams 25, 329, 330, 346, 407, 420, 530, 591

Williamson 59, 340

Wilson 205

Winford 24, 158, 265, 326, 327, 334, 335, 344

Winslow 131

Wissing 508

Witherspoon 310

Wolfram 4, 5, 6, 7, 15, 16, 20, 21, 23, 24, 71, 121, 122, 136, 158, 160, 172, 175, 177, 178, 181, 184, 186, 187, 194, 195, 196, 207, 244, 247, 258, 265, 275, 328, 422, 423, 588, 589, 590, 591, 592, 594, 596, 597, 598, 599, 600, 603, 604, 605, 606, 607, 608, 609, 610, 611, 612, 614, 655, 659, 660, 662, 666

Wolpert 536

Wong 514, 564, 565, 569

Wood 104, 293

Woodward’s 135

Wright 3, 44, 104, 121, 140, 142, 150, 158, 163, 166, 167, 204, 205, 267, 284, 288, 289, 291, 293, 295, 346, 365, 366, 374, 381, 383, 660

Wright’s 37, 267, 289

Wurm, Mühlhäusler and Tryon 457

Wyld 19, 122, 486

Wyld’s 486

Y. Kachru 547

Yallop 428

Yamuna 505

Yamuna Kachru 547

Yano 505

Yeok-Hwa Ngeow 563

Young 189

Youssef 14, 330

Yule 546

Zettersten 89




Index of languages and varieties




(AAVE) 194

‘African 528

‘Asian Englishes’ 25, 514, 560

ANGLO-INDIAN ENGLISH 543

AAE 329, 343, 344, 345, 349

AAVE 158, 159, 160, 166, 194, 196

Aboriginal English 21, 457, 472

Aboriginal English in Australia 432

Aboriginal languages 463

Aboriginal pidgin English 436

Adult West African 168

African 7, 509

African American 158, 181, 195, 196, 244

African American [Vernacular] English 654

African American diasporas 6

African American English 4, 6, 22, 23, 47, 48, 49, 256, 287, 288, 316, 322, 328, 341, 343, 345, 526, 587, 590, 597, 599, 600, 602, 604, 605, 606, 607, 608, 609, 611, 670

African American Vernacular English 185, 265, 422

African Americans 106, 172, 177, 181, 194, 195, 196, 285, 333

African diaspora 195

African Englishes 508, 509, 514, 515, 516, 517, 518, 519, 521, 526, 527, 530, 611

African languages 338

African Nova Scotian English 219

Africans 303, 331

Afrikaans 8, 365, 371, 376, 378, 379, 380, 381, 382, 384

Afrikaans English 8, 373, 588, 598, 606, 610

Afrikaans speakers of English 508

Alabama English 267

AmE 599

American dialects 181

American English 5, 8, 14, 34, 41, 43, 44, 47, 52, 73, 106, 190, 193, 264, 311, 473, 477, 479, 493, 506, 518, 588, 589, 590, 592, 598, 605

American English 606, 609, 659, 660

American English of the Lower South 598

American English 182

American Englishes 132

American Midland 601

American Midland region 609

American South 52, 208, 601

Americana 6, 268, 270

Americans in Sierra Leone 7

Anglo-American 178, 181, 185, 195, 196

Anglo-Americans 172, 177

Anglo-Indian English 541, 574

Anglo-Indian, Anglo-Malay 654

Anglo-Indians 554

Anglo-Malay 563, 654

Anglo-Norman 83, 86

anglophone southern hemisphere 9

Appalachia 5, 6, 71, 76, 108, 183, 320

Appalachian 76, 255, 286, 290, 292

Appalachian dialect 268

Appalachian English 8, 23, 51, 68, 140, 263, 265, 290, 346, 590, 598, 602, 603, 605, 612

Appalachians 13

Arabic 541, 548, 570

Asian 508, 518, 519, 521, 526, 611

Asian English 655

Asian English? 511

Asian Englishes 25, 508, 509, 511, 512, 514, 516, 521, 523, 524, 525, 527, 528, 529, 606, 655, 657, 659

Assamese 548

Atlantic 463

Atlantic creoles 340

AusE 376

Australasian English 370, 371, 415

Australia 1, 11, 69, 95, 109, 370, 426

Australian 369, 407, 408, 411, 453, 597, 599

Australian English 11, 12, 43, 44, 109, 110, 449, 477, 484, 505, 591, 596, 605

Australian Englishes 413

Austronesian 475, 560, 565

Austronesian languages 479, 480

Azera 472

Babu English 541

Bahamian English 345

Bahasa 565

Bahasa Indonesia 565

Bahasa Malaysia 563

Baluchi 550

Bangladesh English 524

Bantu 340, 382, 520, 529

Barbadian English 109, 334, 339, 351, 352

Barbadian speech 341

Barbados 2, 10, 25, 45, 100, 109, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 336, 338, 343, 344, 352, 658

Bazaar Malay 563

Bazaar Malay 565

Bearer English 541

‘Beche de Mer lingo’ 460

Belfast English 592

Bengali 541, 546, 548

Bengali English 543, 544

Bequia 346

Bhojpuri 549, 667

Bikol 579

Bisayan 579

Bislama 463, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 479, 480, 481, 484, 486, 488, 490, 492, 494

Black Bahamian English 339

Black English Vernacular 654

Black South African English 508, 530

black South African English 509

Bonin/Ogasawara Islands 20

Boston English 106

Boxwallah English 541

Bradford 598

Brahui 537, 549

Brazilian 271

Brazilian Americana 284

Brazilian corpus 297

Brazilian Portuguese 364

Brazilian SAE’ 274

British 311, 327

British English 5, 14, 19, 34, 264, 266, 293, 478, 506, 546, 609

British Isles 330

Broken 457

broken English 655

Burgher English 541, 554

‘Burgher English’ 554

Butler English 541

‘butler English’ 662

Canada 14

Canadian 65, 369, 370

Canadian and Louisiana French 364

Canadian English 5, 74, 83, 108, 255, 429, 594

‘Canton English’ 571

Canadian French 586

Cantonese 515, 522, 560, 563, 564, 572, 573

Cape Colony 370

Cape York Creole 434

Caribbean 1, 2, 21, 24, 25, 40, 44, 46, 109, 208, 285, 303, 601, 612, 614

Caribbean creole 284, 614

Caribbean creole English 609

Caribbean creoles 469, 614, 660

Caribbean English 44, 51, 109, 257, 336, 590

Caribbean Englishes 254

Cebuano 579

Chancery 366

Chancery Standard 365

Channel Islands French 448

Chaucer 266

Chaucerian English 8

Chesapeake 185

Chesapeake Bay 184, 185, 186, 275

Chinese 448, 512, 516, 518, 520, 563, 564, 569, 572, 574, 576

Chinese Pidgin English 463, 488, 492

Christopher Cooper 367

Classical Arabic 658

Cockney 432, 450, 472, 590, 591

Cockney speech 44

‘Cockneys’ 421

Cockneys 422

colonial American English 183

colonial English 656

coloured 377, 378

Confederados 287

Cornish 330

creole English 466

Creole English 494

Danish 517

‘Decorative English’ 511

Delmarva 185

Delmarva dialect 185

Devon English 209, 210, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 219

Dharuk 433, 436

dialects of the north of England 368

diaspora 6

diaspora on Samaná 48

Dravidian 382, 516, 518, 537, 542, 543, 544, 545, 549, 553, 560

Dravidian English 543

Dublin English 5, 37, 39, 41, 47, 52, 53, 594, 596, 597

Dutch 8, 36, 44, 313, 363, 381, 479, 518, 554, 565

Dutch Guiana 335

earlier general American English 184

earliest American English 183

Early 159

Early Modern (British) English 262

Early Modern English 204, 211, 215, 263, 284, 286, 287, 289, 590

east 587

East African English 519

East Anglia 11, 36, 124, 126, 131, 133, 136, 159, 331, 452, 602

East Anglian 65, 137, 140, 141, 142, 144, 145, 150, 275, 451, 595

East Anglian English 609

East Anglian forms of British English 670

East Midland 35

East Midlands 281

East Sutherland Gaelic 408

Eastern Cape 11, 13, 19, 370, 371, 513

eastern Irish English 428

eastern United States 12

eighteenth-century American English 595

England 453

English 5, 39, 208, 212, 213, 214, 217, 218, 219, 552

English in Hong Kong 570

English in Ireland 661

English in Nigeria 516

English in Pakistan 550

English in South-East Asia 669

English in Sri Lanka 552

English in the Philippines 574

English in the south of Ireland 49

English of Dublin 16

English on Tristan da Cunha 428

English St Kitts 332

Englishes 363, 364, 521

Eora 433

ET 363, 364, 367, 372

ETE 364, 366, 367, 370, 378

ETEs 365, 368, 369, 374

extraterritorial 363

extraterritorial Englishes 415

extra-territorial Englishes 407

Falkland Islands 20

Falklands 514

far north of England 592

Feagin 606

Filipino 576

Filipino English 518, 526

Finland Swedish 364

Finnish 517, 518, 522

Flemish 83

‘foreign-language English’ 510

formative years of American English 596

Forth and Bargy 6, 8, 83, 90

French 36, 53, 375, 382, 474, 484, 485, 528, 588, 593, 598, 599, 614

French origin 490

Frisian 363

Gaelic 8, 61, 68, 94, 185, 320, 328, 404, 524

General American 660

general American English 184

‘General American’ 312

German 8, 42, 45, 286, 310, 311, 314, 363, 380, 474, 475, 488, 516, 519, 520, 521, 598, 599, 608, 612, 613

Germanic 270, 286, 518, 603

Germans 313

Greek 517, 518

Gujarati 541, 544, 548, 549

Gullah 109, 257, 284, 331, 338, 343, 345, 601, 606, 660

Guyana 331, 333, 338

Guyanese 328

Hainanese 522

Hausa 529

Hawai’i 494

Hawai’i Creole English 463, 464, 473, 474, 487

Hawaiian 463, 464, 474, 480

Hawaiian Creole 526

HCE 470, 471, 473, 486, 490, 491, 494

Hebrew 378

Hebridean English 98

Hiberno-English 66, 69, 72, 370

Hiberno-English 329

Highland English 61

Hindi 541, 546, 548, 550, 570, 574

Hochdeutsch 658

Hokkien 520, 522, 525, 526, 560, 563, 564, 568, 570

Home Counties 296

Hong Kong 426

Hong Kong English 505, 506, 514, 526, 559, 573, 574

Hoosier Apex 20

Hungarian 517

Hyde County 174, 175, 176, 178, 194, 195, 196

Ibo 601

Icelandic 363, 517

IE 251, 253

Igbo 529

Ilocano 579

In Caribbean varieties 595

India 426

Indian 377, 546, 552

Indian English 522, 523, 542, 545, 547, 551, 606

‘Indian English’ 542

‘International English’ 504

Indo-Aryan 382, 516, 518, 542, 543, 545, 548, 549, 560

Indo-European 550

Indo-Iranian 548, 550

Ireland 17, 37, 420, 426, 453, 512

Irish 5, 8, 22, 45, 49, 83, 86, 91, 92, 246, 252, 310, 331, 337, 339, 348, 349, 350, 368, 406, 425, 427, 428, 450, 451, 543, 586, 587, 605, 606, 613

Irish dialects 244

Irish English 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 22, 23, 24, 41, 42, 50, 51, 248, 254, 267, 284, 326, 327, 328, 329, 337, 342, 343, 344, 346, 347, 349, 351, 352, 369, 418, 422, 426, 427, 428, 450, 477, 505, 524, 587, 589, 590, 591, 592, 593, 594, 595, 596, 597, 598, 599, 601, 603, 604, 605, 607, 608, 609, 610, 611, 612, 664, 667, 668, 669

Irish Gaelic 243, 246, 448

Irish name 45

< Irish 106

Irish varieties 422

Irish-settled 256

Italian 517, 662

Jamaica 331, 333, 335, 338, 477, 599

Jamaican creole 335

Jamaican Creole 472, 614

Jamaican English 250, 545

jargon English 434

Jewish 377, 379

John Hart 367

Kannada 548, 549

‘Kanaka English’ 460

Kashmiri 548, 549, 550

Kent 124, 126

Kent across to Devon 598

Kenticisms 367

Kentish 35

Khoe 382

Kikuyu 518

Kiswahili 509, 519, 520, 529

kitchen English 662

Konkani 548

Koori 432

Koori English 432

Krio 333, 528

Kriol 434, 457

Kwaio 480

KwaZulu-Natal 13, 14, 21, 512

Lankan English 554

‘London English’ 124

Latin 88, 375, 544, 614, 662

Latin-American Spanish 364

Liberia 6

Liberian Settler English 207

Liberian Settler Liberian Settler Liberian Settler English 211, 528

Lithuanian 379

local dialect of Arabic 658

London and Home Counties 367

London and Home Counties English 609

London and the Home Counties 366

London dialect 421

London English 124, 418, 427, 449

London/Home Counties 11

London/south-east variety 425

Low Countries 602

Low German 68

Lower 38

Lower Guinea 327

Lower South in the United States 42

Lower South of the United States 609

Luganda 518

Lumbee 190

Lumbee English 186, 189, 191, 192, 193, 194

Lumbee Indians 21, 177, 184

Lumbee Native Americans 172, 175

Lumbee speakers 181

Magahi 549

Mainland Canada 108

Mainly US 369

Maithili 549

Malay 474, 512, 515, 516, 518, 520, 525, 563, 564, 565, 567, 568, 569, 570, 574, 576

Malayalam 548, 549, 560

Malaysia 527, 565

Malaysian 523, 564

Malaysian English 514, 519, 521, 522, 526, 564, 565, 570

Mandarin 525, 560, 567, 568, 572

Mandarin/Putonghua 526

Manipuri 548

Manx, or Isle of Man accent 485

Maori 436, 440, 449, 480

Maori–English pre-pidgin 449

Marathi 541, 548, 549

ME 15, 67

Melanesian 474

Melanesian Pidgin 465

Melanesian pidgin 468

Melanesian Pidgin English 456, 476

Melanesian pidgins 435

Melanesian-Chinese Pidgin 466

Mercia 366

Merseyside 35, 101

Mi’kmaq 243

Mid Ulster English 87

Middle 39, 215

Middle English 35, 40, 44, 93, 159, 205, 284, 286, 287, 365, 593, 611, 668

Middle Irish 82

Midland 35

Midland area of the United States 606

Midland dialect of American English 76

Midland region 592

Midland region of the 588

Midland United States 51, 594

Midlands 38, 133, 205, 587

Midlands of England 369

Miskito Coast 614

Modern English 44, 159

Modern Scots 64

Montserrat 109, 337, 343

MPE 465, 469, 470, 473, 476, 481, 483, 488, 489, 490, 491, 493, 494

Munda 542, 549, 550

Natal 370, 371, 376

near-native variety 663

Nepali 548

New England 40, 588

New Englishes 493, 570, 575, 577, 659

‘New English’ 560, 567

‘New Englishes’ 25, 503, 509, 559, 599

(Newfoundland) 20

New South Wales 433

New South Wales (NSW) jargon – 434

New South Wales Pidgin English 465, 478

New World English 526

New World varieties 664

New York 17

New York City 17, 588

New Zealand 6, 11, 12, 18, 292, 369, 370, 378, 408, 410, 413, 426, 430, 431, 596

New Zealand English 18, 19, 44, 52, 53, 68, 280, 591, 597, 599

New Zealand Englishes 407, 411

New Zealand’s Southland 73

Newfoundland 10, 11, 12, 38, 41, 44, 106, 107, 429, 598, 604

Newfoundland by Irish 13

Newfoundland English 23, 46, 47, 48, 53, 108, 590, 591, 613, 614

Newfoundland Vernacular English 207, 211, 216

Newfoundland Vernacular Ngatikese 466

Niger-Congo 516, 529

Norman French 10, 82

Norn 62

north 38, 124, 369, 374

North America 426

North American 253

north County Antrim 319

North Germanic languages 667

north of Ireland 590

Northern 35

northern dialects of English 49

northern England 285, 288

northern English 41, 265

Northern English 593, 605

northern hemisphere 20, 35

northern hemisphere forms of English 506

northern Ireland 288

Northern Ireland 405, 589

Northern Irish English 350

North-Sea Germanic 363

Northumbria 366

Northumbrian 450, 451

north-west 38

north-west Midlands 592

Nova Scotia 207

NSWPE 480, 481, 482

Nyungan English 432, 434

Nyungar 432, 433

NZE 376, 413

Oceanic languages 470

Ocracoke 174, 176, 187, 188, 189, 194, 195, 666

‘Ocracoke Brogue’ 655

Ocracoke English 192

OE 63, 66, 67, 252

OF 66, 67

Oklahoma 16

Old 44, 286

Old English 7, 266, 291, 366, 595, 600, 602, 662, 666

Old Irish 82

Old Norse 82, 86, 286

Older Scots 59, 63

Oriya 548

Otago 12, 429

Ottawa 108

Ottawa Valley 11, 107

Outer Banks 6, 20, 172, 178, 185, 265, 594, 603

Outer Banks English 192, 193, 590, 603

Ozark 6

Ozarks 6

Pacific 44

Pacific English 21, 476

Pacific Jargon English 462, 464, 468

‘Pacific Jargon English’ 461

Pacific Nautical Pidgin English 462

‘Pacific Nautical Pidgin English’ 460

Pacific pidgin English 461, 470

Pakistani English 544, 551

Pakistani Palatine Palmerston English 492

Palmerston English 493, 494

Pama-Nyungan 435

Panjabi 549, 551

Pashto 550, 551

Persian 541, 548

Philippine English 514, 525, 576, 577, 578

philippine english 579

pidgin English 466

Pidgin English 467, 476, 481, 489

pidgin Englishes 461

Pidgin Maori 457

Pilipino 525

Pitcairn-Norfolk 467, 468, 469, 471, 473, 474, 477

Pitjantjatjara 433

PJE 476, 493

PN 471, 480, 481, 490, 491

Portuguese 327, 382, 528, 546, 570

Punjabi 545, 548

Putonghua 520

Putonghua (Mandarin) 525

Queensland Plantation Pidgin English 465

Rajasthani 549

Received Pronunciation 14, 545, 591, 599, 663, 665

regional British 244

Regional British English 267

regional British English 328

Robeson County 175, 177, 178, 185, 189

Romance 518

Roper RP 15

RP 37, 43, 73, 372, 373, 449, 517, 545, 564, 573, 596, 597

RP 448

Russian 516, 526

Samaná 6

‘Sailor English’ 483

‘Sandalwood English’ 460

Samuel Puttenham 367

San 382

Sanskrit 541, 546, 548, 549

Santali 550

Scandinavian 68, 86, 614

Schwyzerdütsch 658

Scotch-Irish 311

Scotland 10, 40, 285, 288, 317, 318, 345, 371, 405, 411, 412, 426, 453, 512, 589, 593

Scots 41, 42, 65, 286, 310, 322, 366, 368, 369, 374, 380, 429, 450, 473, 516, 591, 594, 595, 597, 600, 605, 666

Scots English 185

Scots-Irish 265, 426

Scottish 8, 263, 284, 319, 428, 451, 596, 604, 605, 606, 608, 610

Scottish dialects 415

Scottish English 47, 429, 450, 543, 588, 591, 592, 593, 597, 601, 604, 605, 608

Scottish Gaelic 21, 243, 448

Scottish National Dictionary 320

Scottish Standard English 59, 61, 74, 75

Scouse 101

Second Language English 666

settler-derived English 505

Shakespeare 8, 266

‘Shakespearean’ or ‘Elizabethan’ English 177

‘Ship English’ 289

Shakespearean English 262

Ship English 43, 50

Sierra Leone 327

Sindhi 548, 550

Singapore 25, 526, 527, 564

Singapore English 515, 521, 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, 564, 566, 567

Singaporean English 505, 545, 568, 569

Singapore-Malaysian English 568

Singlish 567, 579

Sinhala 549, 553, 554

Sinhalese 553

Sino-Tibetan 560

SIP 476, 479, 480, 481, 482, 487, 489, 490, 492

Slavic 519

Smith Island 175, 178, 184, 188, 189

Smith Islanders 188, 189

Solomon Islands Pijin 456, 476

Solomons Pijin 474

South 168

‘South Seas Jargon’ 460

(southern) Irish English 37

South Africa 4, 8, 11, 17, 104, 426, 594

South African 19, 407, 611

South African English 8, 408, 479, 526, 604, 610, 611

South African Englishes 408

South African Indian English 21, 22, 285, 505, 601, 604, 610, 667

South Asia 25

South Asian 504

south of England 420

south of the United States 596

South-East 281

South-East Asia 25

South-East Asian English 504

South-East Asian varieties of English 527

south-east Ireland 343, 604

South-East Irish English 2, 250

south-east of England 19, 587, 588

South-Eastern British English 588

south-eastern English 19, 428

Southern 35

southern 194

Southern American English 613

southern British English 410, 668

Southern British English standard 125

southern British lengthening 596

southern dialects of the United States 596

southern English 589

southern hemisphere 9, 14, 18, 20, 35, 588, 594, 595

southern hemisphere English 19

Southern Hemisphere English 660

southern hemisphere varieties of English 269

southern Ireland 255

southern United States 4, 24, 591, 594, 612, 614

Southern White Vernacular English 158

Southern/South-Western English 588

south-west 11, 37, 38, 124, 374, 411, 596, 601

South-West 326

South-West British English 2, 248, 250, 343, 344, 346, 352, 587

south-west England 184, 602, 604

south-west English 246

south-west of England 404

south-western English 41, 44, 344

South-Western Spanish 210

Spanish 415, 517, 518, 544, 578

Sri Lankan English 527

St Kitts 332, 335, 343, 472

standard 668

standard British English 2, 42

Standard English 63, 68, 204

STRUT/FOOT split 369

standardised Scottish English 404

States 38

Surinam 488

Suriname 335

SW England 255

SWBE 253

SWVE 158, 159, 166

Tagalog 515, 560, 576, 578, 579

Tagalogs 576

Tahitian 457, 471, 473

Tamil 512, 541, 548, 549, 553, 554, 560, 563, 567

Tamil English 543

Tangoan 474

Telugu 541, 548, 549, 560

the Lumbee 185, 191, 194

(the north of) England 42

Tibeto-Burman 550

Tidewater South 588

Tidewater Virginia 136

Tok Pisin 435, 463, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 478, 480, 481, 482, 484, 487, 492, 493, 494

Tolai 470, 475

Tolais 473

Torres Strait Creole 434

TP 470, 476, 479, 480, 481, 486, 487, 490

TP/Bislama 487

Trinidadian 346

Tristan da Cunha 20, 514

Turk 536

Tyneside 35, 94, 102, 602, 605

Tyneside English 102, 601, 607, 608, 610

Ulster 40, 290, 314, 317, 318, 320, 321

Ulster English 43, 52, 185, 346

Ulster Scots 3, 11, 63, 68, 69, 71, 91, 93, 98, 100, 102, 104, 105, 106, 183, 273, 313, 319, 345, 346, 590, 592, 606

‘Ulster’ 311

‘Ulster Scot’ 313

Ulster Scots English 345

Ulster Scots grammar 71

Ulster-Scots 316

Unguja 529

United States 588

United States English 14

United States Midland 13

Upper South of the United 38

urban British English 590

Urdu 541, 548, 550, 551, 552

US American usage 349

US English 370

Valley 108

Vasconic 82

Vernacular English speakers 158

Wales 371

Waterford English 341

Welsh 83, 448, 517

Welsh English 83

Wessex 366

Wessex-settled 247, 252

Wessex-settled town 257

West 35, 667

West African 326, 327

West African English 337

West African forms of English 669

West African languages 195

West African Pidgin English 528

West and North Germanic 661, 665

West Country 11, 13, 281, 371, 405, 412, 451, 614

West Country English 246, 263, 601

West Indian 472

West Indian English 477

west Midlands 124, 601

west of England 24

West Saxon 7, 366, 662

Western 13, 19

Western Cape 371, 376, 383

Winer 333

Wiradhuri 433

‘World English’ 504

‘World Englishes’ 504, 505, 506, 507, 508, 509

Worldwide Nautical Pidgin English 462

Yagara 433

Yiddish 364, 378, 379, 662

Yorkshire 371

Yoruba 529

Zimbabwe 509

Zimbabwean 370




General index




(a) Now 380

(c) Must 381

(Salem Trials 139

(w)unu 340

/I/ tensing 248

/ɔɹ/ and // merger 255

/ai/ pronunciation 339

/h/ dropping 413

/h/ is not dropped 473

/h/-dropping 251, 450, 451, 452

/l/ vocalisation 471

/r/ can be replaced by [w] 573

/r/ insertion 255

/s/ VERSUS /S/ 518

/s/ vs. /z/ in greasy and the verb grease 311

/t/ variable 431

/v/ versus /w/ 517

/w/ – /v/ merger 339

/w/ and /v/ 44

/x/ 137

‘a cline of bilingualism’ 542

A Concise Ulster Dictionary 60, 71

A Corpus of Irish English 45, 90, 347, 348

A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue 61

A Sound Atlas of Irish English 52, 94, 248, 337, 338

a style-shifting 15

absence of a copula in equative sentences 341

Absence of be 569

accentual patterns 577

accommodated 430

accommodates 451

accommodation 10, 16, 51, 196, 407, 451, 478

acquiring 344

adapted meanings 570

Addition of you 463

African regional grouping 336

African substratum input 45

after 107, 252

after perfect 253

afunctional do 93

agglutinative 529, 565

‘alternate official language’ 563

alienable and inalienable possession 435

all the 318

All the far ‘as far as’ 319

all with interrogative pronouns 318

allocate 51

allophonic distribution 544

alternation between a front and a back high short vowel 43

alveolar flap 577

alveolarisation of a final velar nasal 280

Ambidental fricatives 577

AMBIDENTAL FRICATIVE 517

American Colonization Society 528

American regional dialects 297

American Standard 147

Americanism 310

An extraterritorial language 363

analogical formations of reflexives 283

analogical levelling 17

anglicisation 59

Anglo-Irish influence in Liverpool 73

antecedents 311

anterior bin 334

anymore ‘nowadays’ in a positive sentence 319

a-prefixing 8, 183

A-prefixing 248

Arabic script 565

archaic English 479

archaism 473

AREAL CONSIDERATIONS 543

arguably to AAVE as well as to the Caribbean 208

Article usage 578

Asian Englishes 527

aspect 191

aspect-orientation 525

aspectual distinctions 327

aspectual markers 525

aspectual marking 344

assimilation 86

assimilation of sibilants 4

assisted immigrants 443

Atlantic creoles 462

Authorised Version 143

‘autonomy’ 506

auxiliary forms 23

auxiliary have and auxiliary be 186

auxiliary verbs 23

Avoidance of homophony 18

backed and raised /ɔI/ 275

backed/raised /ai/ 194

backed/raised variant of /ai/ 194

background languages 529, 530, 551, 559, 567, 568

‘background language’ 509

basilectal speech 158

BATH/START/PALM 411

Bazar Malay 526

bees 350

beon ‘to be’ 345

bilabial allophone 45

bilingualism 381

bioprogram’ 334

Bonner Beiträge zur Anglistik 88

borderline cases 293

breaking 270

breaking of vowels 7

breaking up initial clusters 551

Bridewell corpus 167

British empire 34

British Library 88

British National Corpus 140

British raj 542

busy-progressive 380

‘cabin passengers’ 441

calque 546

calques 382

‘Canadian Raising’ 14, 64

Canadian Raising 108, 410

cane sugar trade 331

Captain Thomas Stukeley 89

caregiver scenario 514

Cascade diffusion 16

Castle Rackrent 90

categorical 48

central stressed vowel 516

centralisation of the KIT vowel 452

centricity 503

‘chain’ 375

‘chain migration’ 440

chain shift 19, 376

characterised by productive nonconcord -s usage, whose precursors are known to have

Changes among dialects 15

charter group 108

Charter of Dublin 84

Chinese particles, such as lah 570

circles 503

Civil War in England (1642–51) 331

cline for the realisation 515

closed communities 15, 177

closeknit social network 132

closely knit 103

closely knit community 41

CLOTH/LOT 410

CLUSTER SIMPLIFICATION 519

Code-mixing 436

Code-switching 515

code-switching 572, 579

“Colonial AmE” 122

colonial America 182

colonial background 528

colonial destinations 440

colonial dialects 418

colonial expansion 33

colonial hinterland 316

colonial history 312

‘Colonial lag’ 8, 139, 262, 292

colonial pasts 559

Colonial period 125

colonial period 566

colonial planning 513

colonial service industry 1

Colonial times 278

colonial twang 446

colonies 35

Combinations of modal auxiliary verbs (might could, might would 319

coming of English to Ireland 83

common core of features 11

common source 214

communicating across ethnolinguistic boundaries 466

communities are more ‘isolated’ 320

community isolation 196

community membership 176

completive aspect 569

completive don 341

completive done 342

compounds are more transparent 475

Concise Ulster Dictionary 314

conditioned sound-changes 63

conditioning 218

conditioning factors 252

conflation of the meanings 479

CONJUNCTIONS 523

connection 320

conservatism 151

conservative 263

Conservative 373

conservative dialects 9

conservative rural usage 36

consolidation 442

constituted an input variety to Newfoundland and large parts of the American South hence

constraints 211

constraints on variability 5

construction of local identity 20

contact 46, 197, 365, 384

contact dialects 407

contact situations 186

contact-induced change 505

contact-induced quick levelling process 126

Contagious diffusion 16

contemporary reflex 217

contemporary usage 3

continuous family residency 176

contract workers 403

contraction 95

contractions of common verb forms 47

Contrahierarchical diffusion 16

contrastive stress 515, 568

convergence 22, 384, 435, 471

convergent influence 102

CONVER

Biografie (woord)

Raymond Hickey is Professor of Linguistics in the Department of English, Essen University.

Voorwoord

Legacies of Colonial English
Cambridge University Press
0521830206 - Legacies of Colonial English - Studies in Transported Dialects - Edited by Raymond Hickey
Frontmatter/Prelims
More information


Legacies of Colonial English




As a result of colonization, many varieties of English now exist around the world. Legacies of Colonial English brings together a team of internationally renowned scholars to discuss the role of British dialects in both the genesis and subsequent history of postcolonial Englishes. Considering the input of Scottish, English and Irish dialects, they closely examine a wide range of Englishes – including those in North and South America, South Africa, Asia, Australia, and New Zealand – and explain why many of them still reflect non-standard British usage from the distant past. Complete with a checklist of dialect features, a detailed glossary and set of general references on the topic of postcolonial Englishes, this book will be an invaluable source to scholars and students of English Language and Linguistics, particularly those interested in sociolinguistics, historical linguistics and dialectology.

RAYMOND HICKEY is Professor of Linguistics in the Department of English, Essen University. His main research areas are computer corpus processing, extraterritorial varieties of English (especially Irish English) and general questions of language change. He has published over eighty articles on various issues in linguistics, and most recently published books include A Source Book for Irish English (2002), and Motives for Language Change (Cambridge University Press, 2002).





STUDIES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE




General editor
Merja Kytö (Uppsala University)

Editorial board
Bas Aarts (University College London)
John Algeo (University of Georgia)
Susan Fitzmaurice (Northern Arizona University)
Richard Hogg (University of Manchester)
Charles F. Meyer (University of Massachusetts)

The aim of this series is to provide a framework for original work on the English language. All are based securely on empirical research, and represent theoretical and descriptive contributions to our knowledge of notional varieties of English, both written and spoken. The series will cover a broad range of topics in English grammar, vocabulary, discourse, and pragmatics, and is aimed at an international readership.

Already published

Christian Mair Infinitival Complement Clauses in English: a Study of Syntax in Discourse

Charles F. Meyer Apposition in Contemporary English

Jan Firbas Functional Sentence Perspective in Written and Spoken Communication

Izchak M. Schlesinger Cognitive Space and Linguistic Case

Katie Wales Personal Pronouns in Present-day English

Laura Wright The Development of Standard English, 1300–1800: Theories, Descriptions, Conflicts

Charles F. Meyer English Corpus Linguistics: Theory and Practice

Stephen J. Nagle and Sara L. Sanders (eds.) English in the Southern United States

Anne Curzan Gender Shifts in the History of English

Kingsley Bolton Chinese Englishes

Irma Taavitsainen and Päivi Pahta (eds.) Medical and Scientific Writing in Late Medieval English

Elizabeth Gordon, Lyle Campbell, Jennifer Hay, Margaret MacLagan, Andrea Sudburg and Peter Trudgill New Zealand English: its Origins and Evolution





Legacies of Colonial English

Studies in transported dialects



Edited by

RAYMOND HICKEY

Essen University





PUBLISHED BY THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE
The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge, CB2 2RU, UK
40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011–4211, USA
477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia
Ruiz de Alarcón 13, 28014 Madrid, Spain
Dock House, The Waterfront, Cape Town 8001, South Africa

http:/ /www.cambridge.org

© Cambridge University Press 2004

This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception
and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
no reproduction of any part may take place without
the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2004

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

Typefaces EhrhardtMT 10/12 pt. and Melior   System LATEX 2e   [TB]

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication data
Legacies of colonial English: studies in transported dialects / edited by Raymond Hickey.
   p.   cm. – (Studies in English language)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0 521 83020 6
1. English language – Commonwealth countries.   2. English language – Variation – Commonwealth countries.   3. English language – Dialects – Commonwealth countries.   4. Postcolonialism – Commonwealth countries.   5. Commonwealth countries – Civilization.   I. Hickey, Raymond, 1954–   II. Series.
PE2751.L44   2004
427′.009171′241 – dc227   2003062527

ISBN 0 521 83020 6 hardback

The publisher has used its best endeavours to ensure that the URLs for external websites referred to in this book are correct and active at the time of going to press. However, the publisher has no responsibility for the websites and can make no guarantee that a site will remain live or that the content is or will remain appropriate.





Contents




List of figures, maps and tables page x
Contributors xiii
Foreword xix
 
Introduction
RAYMOND HICKEY 1
 
Part I
Out of Britain
  1 Dialects of English and their transportation
RAYMOND HICKEY 33
  2 Scots and Scottish English
CAROLINE MACAFEE 59
  3 Development and diffusion of Irish English
RAYMOND HICKEY 82
 
Part II
The New World
  4 The emergence of American English: evidence from seventeenth-century records in New England
MERJA KYTÖ 121
  5 The language of transported Londoners: third-person-singular present-tense markers in depositions from Virginia and the Bermudas, 1607–24
LAURA WRIGHT 158
  6 Remnant dialects in the coastal United States
WALT WOLFRAM AND NATALIE SCHILLING-ESTES 172
  7 Back to the present: verbal -s in the (African American) English diaspora
SHANA POPLACK AND SALI TAGLIAMONTE 203
  8 ‘Canadian Dainty’: the rise and decline of Briticisms in Canada
J. K. CHAMBERS 224
  9 The legacy of British and Irish English in Newfoundland
SANDRA CLARKE 242
10 The English dialect heritage of the southern United States
EDGAR W. SCHNEIDER 262
11 Solving Kurath’s puzzle: establishing the antecedents of the American Midland dialect region
MICHAEL MONTGOMERY 310
12 English dialect input to the Caribbean
RAYMOND HICKEY 326
 
Part III
The southern hemisphere
13 South African English
ROGER LASS 363
14 English transported to the South Atlantic Ocean: Tristan da Cunha
DANIEL SCHREIER 387
15 English on the Falklands
ANDREA SUDBURY 402
16 English input to Australia
SCOTT F. KIESLING 418
17 English input to New Zealand
ELIZABETH GORDON AND PETER TRUDGILL 440
18 English input to the English-lexicon pidgins and creoles of the Pacific
SUZANNE ROMAINE 456
 
Part IV
English in Asia
19 Englishes in Asia and Africa: origin and structure
RAYMOND HICKEY 503
20 South Asian Englishes
RAYMOND HICKEY 536
21 South-East Asian Englishes
RAYMOND HICKEY 559
 
Appendix 1 Checklist of nonstandard features
RAYMOND HICKEY 586
Appendix 2 Timeline for varieties of English
RAYMOND HICKEY 621
Appendix 3 Maps of anglophone locations
RAYMOND HICKEY 627
Glossary of terms
RAYMOND HICKEY 654
General references
RAYMOND HICKEY 671
 
Index of names 692
Index of languages and varieties 704
General index 712




Figures, maps and tables







    Figures
 
2.1   Vowel systems of Scots: a rough historical outline page 65
2.2   The development of the Scottish Standard English system of stressed vowels 74
2.3   The development of the Scottish Standard English lexical incidence of stressed vowels 75
6.1   Cross-generational comparison of /ai/ raising in Ocracoke and Smith Island 187
6.2   Cross-generational comparison of /au/ glide fronting in Ocracoke and Smith Island 188
6.3   The incidence of backed/raised /ai/ across generations and Lumbee communities 190
6.4   Comparison of subject type constraints on regularisation to weren’t for Lumbee English and Outer Banks English 192
7.1   Comparison of verbal -s rates according to grammatical person in Samaná English and Devon English 213
8.1   Pronunciations of leisure with [i:], not [e], by Canadians of different ages in the Golden Horseshoe 236
8.2   Absence of yod in pronunciations of news and student by Canadians of different ages in the Golden Horseshoe 237
 
    Maps
 
2.1   The main dialect divisions of Modern Scots 64
2.2   Surnames in Ulster 70
4.1   Location of Wiltshire towns and origin of emigrants of 1630s 127
4.2   The English origins of the Puritans 1620–75 129
6.1   Remnant community sites 173
8.1   The western tip of Lake Ontario, called the Golden Horseshoe, and the Niagara border between the United States and Canada 234
9.1   The island of Newfoundland 243
10.1   British dialect correspondences with SAmE dialect words (number of shared words by county/region; sources: EDD, SED-D) 296
16.1   European settlement patterns in Australia 425
18.1   The Pacific islands 458
A3.1   The spread of English in the colonial period 627
A3.2   The division of the anglophone world by hemisphere 628
A3.3   The Caribbean 628
A3.4   Origin and destination for the slave trade 629
A3.5   The locations of main anglophone pidgins and creoles 630
A3.6   Locations of African American diaspora 630
A3.7   Dialect regions of the United States 631
A3.8   The route from the British Isles to Newfoundland 632
A3.9   South Africa showing main areas of English settlement 633
A3.10   The Indian emigration to South Africa (Natal) 633
A3.11   The routes to and from Australia and New Zealand 634
A3.12   Australia 635
A3.13   New Zealand 636
A3.14   The Falkland Islands (south-west Atlantic) 637
A3.15   Tristan da Cunha (south-central Atlantic) 638
A3.16   South Asian Englishes 639
A3.17   Languages in South Asia 640
A3.18   South-East Asian Englishes 641
A3.19   Austronesian Languages 642
A3.20   Englishes in Africa 643
A3.21   The Home Counties in England 644
A3.22   The East Anglia region in England 645
A3.23   The south-west region in England 646
A3.24   The Lowlands in Scotland 647
A3.25   Ulster dialect regions after Harris (1984) 648
A3.26   East coast dialect region in Ireland 649
A3.27   The spread of English from Ireland 650
 
    Tables
 
1.1   Usages of verbal -s in nineteenth-century African American English 49
3.1   Linguistically significant features of the Kildare Poems 89
3.2   Features of traditional vernacular varieties of Irish English 96
3.3   Suggestions for sources of key features of Irish English 97
3.4   Acceptance of structures according to county in Ulster 99
3.5   Irish immigration to the United States in the nineteenth century 105
3.6   Native-born settlers in America divided by ethnicity in the late nineteenth century 105
6.1   Comparative dialect profile of selective grammatical variables 179
6.2   Comparative profile of selective phonological variables 180
7.1   Four independent variable rule analyses of the contribution of factors conditioning the occurrence of verbal -s in Devon English and Samaná English 213
10.1   Putative British donor regions for phonetic features of east-central Alabama and western Georgia (adapted from Brooks 1935: 68–71) 267
10.2   Possible British source regions for pronunciation features of SAmE 282
10.3   Diachronic distribution of ten grammatical features in earlier Southern English (NB: this is embedded in the main text, and not in the folder on disk labelled ‘maps and figures) 299
12.1   Periodisation of English on Barbados 335
12.2   Means for distinguishing number with second-person pronouns 340
14.1   The origins of the anglophone settlers on Tristan da Cunha in the nineteenth century 394
14.2   The nonanglophone settlers on Tristan da Cunha 395
14.3   The women from St Helena 397
16.1   Population of NSW colony, September 1800 419
17.1   Settlement patterns in New Zealand provinces 444
19.1   Background languages for African and Asian Englishes 510
19.2   Cline of phonetic realisations in Singapore English 515
19.3   Possible realisations of English /æ/ and /ʌ/ in Asian and African Englishes 516
19.4   Possible realisations of English /Əː(r)/ 517
19.5   Possible realisations of English /θ/ and /ð/ in Asian and African Englishes 517




Contributors




J. K. CHAMBERS is Professor of Linguistics at the University of Toronto. He is known for his original research into present-day Canadian English, documented in many individual studies. He has also studied its origin as shown by his edited monograph, Canadian English: Origins and Structures (Toronto: Methuen, 1973). In a wider context he is known as a sociolinguist and dialectologist and his textbooks and studies, Dialects of English: Studies in Grammatical Variation (edited with Peter Trudgill, London: Longman, 1991), Dialectology (with Peter Trudgill, Cambridge University Press, 1998 [1980]) and Sociolinguistic Theory: Linguistic Variation and its Social Significance (Oxford: Blackwell, 2003 [1995]) have received wide critical acclaim.

SANDRA CLARKE is University Research Professor in the Linguistics Department of Memorial University, St John’s, Newfoundland, Canada. She has a wide range of specialities within linguistics, including research into Algonquian languages of Newfoundland and Labrador and many broad sociolinguistic issues. In the current context she is best known for her many original studies of English on Newfoundland, both of Irish and South-West English origin. She has edited a collection of articles on Canadian English which appeared as Focus on Canada; Varieties of English around the World, general series 11 (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1993).

ELIZABETH GORDON is Professor of Linguistics at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. She is one of the foremost authorities on English in New Zealand. She has authored many monographs, including handbooks on this variety with a specific educational purpose. In recent years she has come to be associated with the Origins of New Zealand English project which uses valuable recordings of speakers born in the nineteenth century to investigate the early stages of English in this country. Together with a number of other colleagues she has prepared a monograph on this subject: Elizabeth Gordon, Lyle Campbell, Jennifer Hay, Margaret Maclagan, Andrea Sudbury and Peter Trudgill, New Zealand English: its Origins and Evolution (Cambridge University Press, in press).

RAYMOND HICKEY is Professor of Linguistics in the Department of English, Essen University, Germany. His main research interests are computer corpus processing, extraterritorial varieties of English (especially Irish English) and general questions of language change. In the first area he has published many books, the most recent project being Corpus Presenter: Processing Software for Language Analysis (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2003). In the latter areas his most recent publications are A Source Book for Irish English (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2002), (ed.) Motives for Language Change (Cambridge University Press, 2003) and (ed.) Collecting Views on Language Change (Oxford: Pergamon, 2002).

SCOTT F. KIESLING is Assistant Professor of Linguistics at the University of Pittsburgh. He completed his PhD in 1996 at Georgetown University with a study of language, gender and power. He was lecturer in the Department of Linguistics of the University of Sydney from 1996 to 1999, before returning to the United States, and during this period began a study on variation and change in Australian English.

MERJA KYT is Professor of English Language at Uppsala University, Sweden. She studied English language at the University of Helsinki and completed her PhD thesis there with a study of early American English, published as Variation and Diachrony, with Early American English in Focus, University of Bamberg Studies in English Linguistics, 28 (Frankfurt am Main and Bern: Peter Lang, 1991). She played a central role in the development of The Helsinki Corpus of English Texts for which she wrote the manual. Since 1995 she has held the chair of English Language at Uppsala and actively pursued her work on corpus linguistics.

ROGER LASS is Professor Emeritus of Linguistics and Homorarg Research Fellow at the University of Capetown, South Africa. He has published extensively on the history of English (especially the sound system) in a number of monographs published in the 1970s and 1980s. After moving to Capetown his interests came to include extraterritorial varieties of English on which he published many seminal studies and the monograph The Shape of English: Structure and History (London: Dent, 1987). His work on language change, such as On Explaining Language Change (Cambridge University Press, 1980). Historical Linguistics and Language Change (Cambridge University Press, 1997) has brought him great renown in the field.

CAROLINE MACAFEE, formerly of the English Department, University of Aberdeen, is known for her research on Scots, particularly the Glasgow dialect, on which she published a text collection Glasgow, Varieties of English around the World, text series 3 (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1983), and a monograph Traditional Dialect in the Modern World: a Glasgow Case Study (Frankfurt am Main and Bern: Peter Lang, 1994). She compiled and edited A Concise Ulster Dictionary (Oxford University Press, 1996). Her ‘History of Scots to 1700’ (incorporating material by the late A. J. Aitken) appears in vol. Ⅻ of A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue.

MICHAEL MONTGOMERY is Distinguished Professor Emeritus of English and Linguistics at the University of South Carolina. He is known chiefly for many works on English as spoken in the southern United States, such as Language Variety in the South: Perspectives in Black and White (edited with Guy Bailey, Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1986), dealing specifically with the historical antecedents of English there. This work led to research into Scots and Ulster Scots, particularly in the eighteenth century, on which he has written extensively, most notably (with Robert Gregg) in the volume The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language (ed. Charles Jones, Edinburgh University Press, 1997). His dictionary of southern Appalachian English is now in press.

SHANA POPLACK is Distinguished University Professor, Research Chair in Linguistics and Director of the Sociolinguistics Laboratory, University of Ottawa. She has specialised in many fields over some two decades of linguistic research, such as code-switching and bilingualism, language variation and change and diaspora varieties of African American English. Her most recent work in the latter sphere has culminated in the monographs (ed.) The English History of African American English (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2000) and African American English in the Diaspora (with Sali Tagliamonte, Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2001) which are landmarks in this area of language study.

SUZANNE ROMAINE is Merton Professor of English Language at the University of Oxford. She is an internationally renowned linguist with a wide range of linguistic interests and qualifications, which are amply attested in the many monograph publications on different spheres which she has produced over the past two decades. Among her many publications are the following books which are in some manner related to the theme of the present volume: Socio-historical Linguistics: its Status and Methodology (Cambridge University Press, 1982), Pidgin and Creole Languages (London: Longman, 1988), Bilingualism (Oxford: Blackwell, 1989), (ed.) Language in Australia (Cambridge University Press, 1991), Language in Society: an Introduction to Sociolinguistics (Oxford University Press, 2000 [1994]), Vanishing Voices: the Extinction of the World’s Languages (with Daniel Nettle, New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).

NATALIE SCHILLING-ESTES is Assistant Professor in the Linguistics Department at Georgetown University. She is known for her original work on the sociolinguistics of remnant speech communities, in particular those on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Together with Walt Wolfram she has co-authored a book on this subject, Hoi Toide on the Outer Banks: the Story of the Ocracoke Brogue (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1997) and a general study entitled American English: Dialects and Variation (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998). She has also co-edited The Handbook of Language Variation and Change (with J. K. Chambers and Peter Trudgill, Oxford: Blackwell, 2002).

EDGAR W. SCHNEIDER is Professor of Linguistics in the Department of English and American Studies, University of Regensburg. He studied in Graz and worked in Bamberg and Berlin, where he first became professor after completing his postdoctoral qualifications with work on semantics. In the context of the present volume he is best known for his work on early African American English on which he did his PhD and on which he has written widely since. He has also authored and edited volumes on computer-based dialectology, American English in general and on creoles, mostly from the Caribbean. He is currently the editor of the journal English World-Wide and the book series Varieties of English around the World (both published by John Benjamins, Amsterdam).

DANIEL SCHREIER is Assistant Professor of Linguistics in the Department of English and American Studies, University of Regensburg. He completed his PhD at the University of Fribourg in Switzerland on the English of Tristan da Cunha. He was a visiting research scholar at the University of North Carolina at Raleigh where he worked on language development in isolated speech communities. He has also worked in New Zealand where he was engaged in research in connection with the Origins of New Zealand English project at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. He is the author of Isolation and Language Change: Contemporary and Sociohistorical Change from Tristan de Cunha (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003).

ANDREA SUDBURY completed her MA in sociolinguistics at the University of Essex in 1996 on language attitudes with learners of Welsh. For her PhD she studied English as spoken on the Falkland Islands and in particular looked at questions of dialect contact and koineisation in the context of southern hemisphere English. From 2000 to 2002 she was a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Department of Linguistics, University of Canterbury, New Zealand.

SALI TAGLIAMONTE is Associate Professor of Linguistics at the University of Toronto. She is known for a large number of studies on language variation and change, especially within the context of African American English in the diaspora’s locations of Samaná, Dominican Republic, and Nova Scotia, Canada. She has also worked widely on English dialects, while centred at the University of York, UK, and on the retention of nonstandard features in British dialects, especially in morphology and syntax, and in forms of English overseas, including creoles. With Shana Poplack she has co-authored many articles and the recent monograph African American English in the Diaspora (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2001).

PETER TRUDGILL is Chair of English Linguistics at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland. He is one of the foremost sociolinguists working today. His original work began with the study of variation in the speech of Norwich city and in the course of the past three decades he has concerned himself increasingly with the development of English overseas, especially with the question of new dialect formation. This issue is central to his monograph Dialects in Contact (Oxford: Blackwell, 1986) and has been re-evaluated in the context of recent findings on earlier New Zealand English on which he has written extensively in the last few years. He is one of the authors, together (with Elizabeth Gordon, Lyle Campbell, Jennifer Hay, Margaret Maclagan and Andrea Sudbury, of New Zealand English: its Origins and Evolution (Cambridge University Press, in press).

WALT WOLFRAM is William C. Friday Distinguished Professor at the University of North Carolina at Raleigh. He has been working on various sociolinguistic issues over the past three decades, ranging from African American English to the speech of the Appalachian region and that of native American groups such the Lumbee Indians on all of which he has published widely. During the 1990s his interest turned increasingly to the language of remnant speech communities, notably those on the Outer Banks of North Carolina, and together with Natalie Schilling-Estes and other collaborators he has brought out many studies of the speech of this isolated region and a popular handbook, American English: Dialects and Variation (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998).

LAURA WRIGHT is Senior Lecturer in English Language in the Faculty of English and Fellow of Lucy Cavendish College, University of Cambridge. She has worked at Royal Holloway College, London, and the University of Hertfordshire during which time she completed work on early London English, published as Sources of London English: Medieval Thames Vocabulary (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996). She has also worked on stylistics and published a book for students entitled Stylistics: a Practical Coursebook (with Jonathan Hope, London: Routledge, 1996). Later work includes studies on standard English, as seen in the book (ed.) The Development of Standard English, 1300–1800: Theories, Descriptions, Conflicts (Cambridge University Press, 2000), and also encompasses the relationship of early American English to London English of the seventeenth century.





Foreword




The subject of this book is the development of English at various overseas locations during the main period of colonialism, between the early seventeenth and the late nineteenth centuries, and up to the present-day. There are as many scenarios as there are locations, each of which underwent a different kind of exposure to English and hence experienced different developments of the language later. Some main distinctions can be made, however, chiefly that between English which arose from the large-scale settlement of the overseas locations by native speakers and forms of English which arose from the functional need for a means of communication in societies with many different background languages but without a significant tradition of settler English. In both these scenarios the question of interaction with native languages looms large and is treated in detail in many contributions. The current volume is also centrally concerned with the manner in which regional forms of English developed further at new locations, interacting with each other and possibly with other languages already present at the overseas sites.

   Linguistic studies which deal with such issues have appeared in the past few decades. Some have been concerned with the effects of language contact and some with the formation of pidgins which led to later creoles. The specific approach of the current volume concerns the continuity of dialect features and their later alteration and realignment at overseas locations as well as the interaction of background languages with incipient forms of English, be they continuations of the language of settlers or not. The terminology employed here is one which frequently references Britain as the source of input for the ‘extraterritorial’ locations. This is not intended to imply an anglocentricity which for many speakers of English, for instance in South and South-East Asia, is regarded as not of relevance to their forms of the language and may be seen as embodying possible remnants of colonial attitudes. Nonetheless, attitudes to the major anglophone countries do play a role for various postcolonial countries, for instance in the Caribbean, where the emulation of an American or British accent in standard varieties is often an expression of attitude towards the countries from which these accents stem.

   The use of the word ‘legacies’ in the title of the current book is quite deliberate. When one looks at the forms of English in the northern and southern hemispheres, which historically derive from English in the British Isles, then one can recognise features which have clear parallels with forms of English in the area of origin. It is the continuation of regional and/or archaic features of British English overseas which in the main constitutes the ‘colonial legacy’ in the context of transported forms of English. The term ‘legacy’ can be also understood in another sense with reference to English in South Asia and South-East Asia. In these regions the existence of English is due to contact with England as a colonial power and the role which the language played in the public life of these areas and which it continues to play. Indeed the domains of English have, if anything, expanded throughout the twentieth century and in the case of a country like Singapore this has led to a recent generation of native speakers.

   In the linguistic examination of features in this volume more than one suggestion has been put forward for their sources. Indeed the attempt to provide convincing arguments for such sources is a major concern of all the contributions. All scholars agree that the unfolding of English at the overseas locations involved a variety of factors, language contact, sociolinguistic mixing and, of course, the retention of inherited components of colonial English. Many of these have, however, been shifted and rearranged. Some have been discontinued, others have been favoured and furthered by the new communities and still others have arisen through the interaction with background languages. It is the unravelling of these strands in overseas English, and understanding the motivation for the realignments which have taken place as well as for the new constellations which have arisen, which form such a central part of the chapters to be found in this book. As the specific approaches adopted for the contributions have not been unified into a single volume before and as a comprehensive treatment of the continuation of colonial English has not been presented in this form to date, it is hoped that the current book will fulfil a very real need in the field of variety studies.

   During the genesis of this book the contributors and the editor have enjoyed the tireless support of the linguistics editor at Cambridge University Press, Dr Kate Brett, to whom I wish to express my sincere thanks and that of the others as well. My thanks also go to her successor Helen Barton and to Professor Merja Kytö, English Department, Uppsala University, for her continuing support and advice. The contributors, who I have had the pleasure and privilege of working with over the past few years, also deserve the thanks of the editor who they entrusted with their contributions and which have hopefully been properly incorporated into the volume as a whole. For various reasons, chiefly the current commitments of other scholars, a number of chapters have had to be written by the editor who hopes his contributions go some way towards doing justice to the subject matter treated.





© Cambridge University Press

Quote

Legacies of Colonial English
Cambridge University Press
0521830206 - Legacies of Colonial English - Studies in Transported Dialects - Edited by Raymond Hickey
Excerpt
More information


Introduction

RAYMOND HICKEY




1 The emergence of overseas varieties of English

It is probably true to say that mainly regional forms of English were taken to the colonies which England founded in the core 200-hundred-year period between the early seventeenth and the early nineteenth century. Those who served in the overseas settlements were very largely from the lower ranges of society, irrespective of whether one is talking of deportees in early Australia, indentured servants in the early anglophone Caribbean, emigrants and adventurers of various sorts in many other colonies, the sailors who worked on the ocean-going ships, or the bailiffs and other members of the colonial service industry. The only people from the educated middle classes and higher would have been senior officials in the administration, clerical and educational staff or army officers stationed overseas. Given this situation, any treatment of colonial English is likely to be concerned with varieties which are not similar to, or even near, the current or recent historical standard of British English, even granting that the notion of ‘standard’ had a less clear profile in previous centuries than it does today.

   The present book sees its justification in a number of aims which have been set by the editor and the contributors. The first is the attempt to bring into focus just what input varieties were probably operative in individual colonies. The second is to examine the extent to which dialect mixing and/or language contact have been responsible for the precise structure of overseas varieties in areas with multiple immigration patterns. The third aim is to attempt an evaluation of the different reasons for extraterritorial varieties having the form which they show. Dialect input is only one source for colonial English, as shown in the following list of factors determining its shape:

  1. Dialect input and the survival of features from a mainland source or sources.

  2. Independent developments within the overseas communities, including realignments of features in the dialect input.

  3. Contact phenomena where English speakers co-existed with those of other languages.

  4. An indirect influence through the educational system in those countries in which English arose without significant numbers of native-speaker settlers.

  5. Creolisation in those situations where there was no linguistic continuity and where virtually the only input was a pidgin, based on English, from the preceding generation.

   In the study of varieties of English, linguists have sometimes favoured one of the above explanatory factors to the exclusion of others. But even a cursory glance at the forms of English overseas shows that accounting for their structure means taking more than one factor into account and according them relative weight on the basis of considered linguistic arguments. This attitude characterises many of the contributions of the present volume which attempt to afford dialect input arguments greater weight in the discussion of the genesis of overseas varieties and so redress an imbalance which they perceive in the linguistic descriptions of the varieties they are involved in without, however, seeking to adopt an ideological standpoint in favour of dialect retention in extraterritorial forms of English.


1.1 What constitutes dialect input?

In an investigation of the nature of the present one a major concern is determining just what constitutes dialect input to extraterritorial varieties. A simple starting point would be to contrast unusual features in these varieties with those attested in present-day British dialects and simultaneously consider whether there is historical continuity between the area in Britain where a feature or features is/are found and the overseas site at which these seem to reappear. This task is not as easy as might be imagined. Even in an area like Newfoundland (Clarke, this volume) which was for a considerable time isolated from the rest of the anglophone world and which has only two dialect input sources – South-East Irish English and South-West British English – the matter is far from decided as there was interaction between the two mentioned areas in the British Isles (Hickey 2002a). Furthermore, one finds dialect spread across communities overseas. Indeed there may well have been internal migration in an overseas region, such as the Caribbean, which opens up the possibility of features diffusing there, for instance it is conceivable that features of Irish English spread outward from Barbados (and Montserrat) when speakers from here shifted to different parts of the Caribbean, travelling as far as the south-east coast of the United States (Montgomery 2001: 129).

   Another approach in determining what features may have existed in English formerly and been transported overseas involves the examination of historical documents. Here one can avail oneself of the many more or less prescriptive commentaries on English from the early modern period – going back to the sixteenth century – and comb through them for mention of features not part of present-day standard British English but attested overseas. Such sources range from occasional comments in travel literature (such as that by Fynes Morison for Ireland in his Itinerary of 1617–26; see Hughes 1903) to whole glossaries of provincialisms (cf. collections of words from the dialect of Forth and Bargy by Vallancey and Poole; see Dolan and Ó Muirithe 1996). Two other significant sources are more or less genuine representations of rural speech in fictional literature and more pointed caricature of accent such as the satirical treatments of Irish English in Restoration drama (Bliss 1979).

   Of greater value are dedicated works on English pronunciation and grammar. For instance, for Ireland, Thomas Sheridan’s Rhetorical Grammar of the English Language (1781) is an important guide to pronunciation in Dublin in the late eighteenth century. Here he admonishes ‘the well-educated natives of Ireland’ for various traits of speech which he regards as nonstandard (Sheridan 1781: 146). By these means a glimpse of contemporary usage is gained. Similar prescriptive works exist for speech in Britain for the entire early modern period.

   Among the other sources of data being utilised by linguists of late are emigrant letters. These are documents written usually by individuals without too much education and hence without overt conceptions of correct English. They often provide glimpses of what the speech of emigrants was like as the correspondents were in most cases individuals who had already left their country, settled overseas and were writing back to those still at home. Such emigrants’ letters have been examined by Michael Montgomery in his investigation of Ulster Scots influence on early American English (Montgomery 1995, 1997a) and similar collections of letters have been used when examining Irish English in the south of Ireland by Markku Filppula (Filppula 1999) and the present author (eighteenth-century letters illustrating southern Irish English of that period). In addition to this there is a study of regional British English as attested in emigrants’ letters; see Bermejo-Giner and Montgomery (1997).

   In the nineteenth century there are a number of studies which were written as a consequence of the rise of linguistics as an academic discipline. Such works are frequently diachronic in nature and offer insights into conservative speech in Britain which may well have been taken overseas to the colonies. A notable instance of such a source is the comprehensive work on English pronunciation by Ellis (5 vols. 1868–9) and of course the invaluable dialect grammar and dictionary by Wright (1905).


1.2 The relative value of dialect features

When considering possible British/Irish sources for overseas varieties one must not be misled by similarities which are so common that they are of little value. There is a general principle that the more widespread a feature the less it is indicative of a connection between homeland and colony. An apt example of this is diphthong flattening (Wells 1982: 149f.), by which is meant that the movement of the tongue at the end of the rising diphthongs /ai/ and /au/ is much reduced, if not entirely absent, hence one has pronunciations like wife [waːf] and house [hɑːs]. This phenomenon is very common indeed; it is found in South Africa and the southern United States, two regions which are definitely not linked historically, as well as in the north of England, e.g. faan [faːn] ‘fine’ (Ihalainen 1994: 213). Other instances are final cluster simplification, particularly postsonorant deletion, as in mend /mɛn/ and the alveorisation of /ŋ in unstressed syllables, typically in the progressive form of verbs, e.g. talking /tɔːkn / or the assimilation of sibilants to nasals as in wasn’t [wɒzṇt] → [wɒdṇt], found in south-east Ireland and parts of the southern United States (Troike 1986). It is the very general nature of such features which diminishes their diagnostic value when considering historical connections.

   The opposite case, so to speak, is represented by camouflaged forms which are dialectally significant but often difficult to recognise as they show a surface similarity to constructions found in more standard varieties of English but are used differently. Two examples can be taken to illustrate this. In African American English come with V-ing, as in She come acting like she was real mad, looks like a normal case of the verb of motion but this is in fact a special use as a kind of auxiliary verb indicating indignation on the part of the speaker (Wolfram and Schilling-Estes 1998: 173; Spears 1982). The second instance, from Irish English, is the use of never to mark the past as in She never called us which does not have the meaning ‘She did not call us on any occasion’ but refers to a particular occasion which is obvious if a specification of time is added (optionally): She never called us that evening (common in northern England and in Scotland as well).

   Dialect features are characterised not only by presence or absence but by relative frequency. The consideration of frequency has led to many insights in recent years, especially on the level of syntax. For instance, in their study of relatives, Tottie and Rey (1997) and Tottie and Harvie (2000) found that the lack of wh-relatives and the frequency of zero relatives points to the dialect background of African American English (Tottie and Rey 1997: 244) and shows a system not unsimilar to that of Middle Scots examined by Romaine (1982).

   Furthermore, early attestations of overseas varieties can be illuminating in this context. Howe (1997: 267ff.) maintains that earlier African American English (as incorporated in the ex-slave recordings collected in Bailey et al. 1991) is more conservative than modern African American English and more akin to nonstandard southern white English, setting itself off from creole patterning in this respect.


1.3 Internal ranking in dialects

Dialect features show internal ranking, that is, not all features are of equal significance for the status of the dialect. Some are group-exclusive, i.e. a community of speakers uses a variant which is not found in adjacent communities. Within a community dialect features can of course be unevenly distributed; in general, those associated with sections of the community far removed from the standard are taken as highly indicative of that community in that they contribute significantly to its unique profile.

   Furthermore, an implicational relation may hold in a dialect too, that is, the presence of one feature may imply the presence of another much as with implicational universals in phonology such as voiced stops implying voiceless stops in any given language. For instance, if a speaker of Irish English has the habitual aspect as in She does be home of a Saturday, then he/she is certain to have the immediate and resultative perfectives as in She’s after eating the cake and She has the book read, respectively.

   Features which show implicational relations are usually those which are markers in the sociolinguistic sense, i.e. they tend to disappear from speakers’ speech on style shifting upwards. As such they tend to play a role in perceptual dialectology (how speakers themselves see a dialect) and surface in linguistic stereotypes (Hickey 2000a).


1.4 Linguistic constraints on variability

The use of features in a dialect may be subject to constraints on variability. On the one hand there are independent constraints which are traceable to some extralinguistic factor, ultimately of social origin. But there are also linguistic constraints on variability such as the relatively rare occurrence of final cluster reduction before a vowel, e.g. find [faɪn] but find out [faɪnd aʊt] or the nonoccurrence of diphthong lowering before voiceless segments in Canadian English (tight is [təɪt] and not [taɪt] although tide is [taɪd]). The instance of final cluster reduction just quoted provides a good example of this kind of variability (see Wolfram and Schilling-Estes (1998: 249–56) for a detailed discussion of this in American English). In the history of English one can see that sequences of bilabial nasal and voiced stop have not existed for centuries, i.e. comb is pronounced without the final /-b/ (Jespersen 1909: 216). If the nasal is followed by a voiceless stop then it is retained, e.g. damp with final /-p/. Stops following velar nasals have experienced a similar development: voiceless stops are retained, cf. think, but voiced ones are generally lost in word-final position, cf. sing [-ŋ] (the stop can, however, be retained in north-western forms of British English; see Upton and Widdowson 1996: 34f.). Deletion after velar nasals is not always the case word-internally, contrast singer [-ŋ-] with longer [-ŋg-]. However, the cases which are linguistically interesting from the point of view of present-day varieties are those where an alveolar nasal is followed by a voiced stop. Here the stops are realised in standard English, e.g. cold, card, wind, all with final /-d/. In relaxed colloquial styles the final voiced stop can be deleted when followed by a further stop, e.g. cold meat [-lm-], but there are dialects where this deletion holds for careful styles, e.g. Dublin English. In these cases the stop deletion is a dialect feature and not just an aspect of fast speech.


1.5 Dialect survival

There is a characteristic topography which goes with dialect survival overseas. In general, inaccessible, mountainous or isolated coastal regions keep the features which were characteristic of the input varieties. Appalachia and Newfoundland are two classic examples of this kind of situation as the Ozark Mountains region. Indeed, there may well be interconnections between such regions as Christian, Wolfram and Dube (1988: 2) postulate for Appalachia and the Ozarks (see map in Carver 1987: 119; he notes, for instance, the occurrence of poke ‘bag, small sack’ in the Appalachians and the Ozarks, see pp. 176f.). The Outer Banks of North Carolina provide an example of an isolated coastal region with dialect features not found in mainstream varieties of American English (Wolfram and Schilling-Estes 1997: 5–15; this volume). Features in such areas tend to be retained which are not necessarily characteristic of the country they are part of. For instance, rhoticism – the Southland ‘burr’ – in the Otago region of the South Island of New Zealand is not typical of the rest of the country. Such locations exist in the contemporary anglophone world and may have existed historically, but have since disappeared, e.g the baronies of Forth and Bargy in the extreme south-east of Ireland (Hickey 1988).


1.6 Dialect diaspora

Movement away from one area to a smaller, more remote one is what one can term ‘dialect diaspora’. This situation is found in a few cases in the anglophone world and has been the subject of investigation by a number of linguists (notably Shana Poplack, Sali Tagliamonte and John Singler for diaspora forms of African American English). The linguistic interest of such areas derives from their separation from the core area and hence their lack of participation in later developments in this latter area. A case in point is offered by the Americana settlement in Brazil which consists of African Americans who left the southern United States in the wake of defeat after the American Civil War (Montgomery and Melo 1990: 195). Certains features which are regarded as prototypical of present-day southern United States speech, such as diphthong flattening in the PRICE lexical set,1 are not found here. The conclusion which can be drawn is that this phonetic feature is a recent phenomenon, postdating the movement of African Americans to Brazil. Indeed, researchers like Guy Bailey are of the opinion that diphthong flattening is a fairly recent phenomenon (Bailey and Ross 1992: 528; Montgomery and Melo 1990: 206–8).

   There are other African American diasporas, notablly on Samaná peninsula in the Dominican Republic and in Nova Scotia (Poplack 2000: 4–10; Poplack and Tagliamonte 2001: 10–38; 39–68). Data from these locations form a central object of investigation in the chapter by Poplack and Tagliamonte, this volume. The return to West Africa by African Americans in the newly founded state of Liberia in the nineteenth century (it was proclaimed a republic in 1847) has been investigated by John Singler along with the development of African American English after this displacement from the core area in the southern United States (Singler 1991). On the repatriated African Americans in Sierra Leone, see Ehret (1997: 174–6). For an examination of the language of an expatriate community of African Americans in Sierra Leone on the basis of letters, see Montgomery (1999).

   Dialect features can also offer information about migration routes within a country. In the movement of African Americans from the south to the north in the United States there were two basic streams, one which involved African Americans from North and South Carolina moving up along the coast to Washington, DC, Philadelphia and New York, and one which involved those who took a midwestern route up into St Louis, Chicago and Detroit. It has been noted (Wolfram and Schilling-Estes 1998: 115) that the latter group are less likely to show the shift of [ð] to [v], as in brother [-v-], smooth [-v], than are their counterparts at eastern seaboard locations.


1.7 Ebb and flow

When viewing dialect survival in the context of the current book, a number of caveats are called for. Perhaps the most important involves what the present author in another context has called ebb and flow (see Hickey 2002b). By this is meant that certain features which appear to be historical continuities in a remnant area may well not represent a straight line of development from the earliest days of the dialect. An instance (from Britain) which shows this clearly is velarised /l/ in syllable codas. This existed in Old English and was responsible for the breaking of vowels as in West Saxon eald ‘old’ /æəɫd/. Syllable-final velarisation continued into Middle English and led to vocalisation of the lateral, something which is still obvious from the spelling of such words as talk or walk in present-day English which retain the /l/ in writing. But the velarisation of /l/ in popular London English, cf. milk [mɪʊk], would appear to be a recent phenomenon which was not common in the nineteenth century. The explanation for this would seem to lie in the pendulum movement among speakers’ preference for a velarised /l/ in their speech. A swing of the pendulum in favour of this realisation can be seen in present-day Southern Irish English where pronunciations like field [fɪːəɫd] are becoming increasingly common (as attested amply in the recordings for A Sound Atlas of Irish English), although traditionally Irish English has been known for an alveolar /l/ in all syllable positions (Hickey 1986a).

   There are various motivations for the phenomenon of ebb and flow. It may occur between generations of speakers and, if general across a broad section of the population, it may become established in the speech community. It may also be the result of dissociation between groups in a society where the preference of a feature by one group may lead to its being avoided by another (Hickey 2000b).


1.8 False leads

Another caveat concerns features which seem to have a single identifiable source. The clarity of such cases often masks other sources which might be considered. A case in point is a-prefixing as in They were out a-playing on the strand. Some authors have pointed to parallels in Irish and Scottish Gaelic (Majewicz 1984) in which there is a structural parallel; consider the Irish rendering of the English sentence just given: Bhí siad amuigh ag imirt ar an trá [was they out at playing on the strand]. But this obvious parallel would appear to be coincidental. The structure a-V-ing is well attested in British English during the colonial period, deriving historically from on V-ing with phonetic reduction of the preposition on much as in asleep from an earlier on sleep. This may well be the source for those varieties of American English which show this structure as Montgomery (2000), who is sceptical of the Celtic origin, rightly points out. In addition, such text collections as A Corpus of Irish English (Hickey 2003c) has only a very few attestations in the many historical texts for Irish English which it contains.


1.9 The likelihood of sources

Competing sources for dialect features require that one considers more general aspects of language development in trying to reach a decision about which source is the most likely in a particular situation. An example of this is provided by vowel epenthesis in Irish English and Afrikaans English. The epenthetic vowel in question is a shwa in words with final /-lm/ clusters, i.e. with heavy codas consisting of more than one nonhomorganic sonorant, hence film is typically [fɪləm]. Branford (1994: 486) in his discussion of English in South Africa mentions the presence of the same feature in Irish English and suggests that it might be a source. But the number of Irish settlers in South Africa was only about 1 per cent, so hardly significant in the genesis of varieties of English there. However, Afrikaans shows a similar epenthesis and studies of the geographical distribution of epenthesis (Hickey 1986b) confirm that it is a low-level phonetic phenomenon with a typically areal spread, for instance it is found in Dutch and in the adjacent German dialects of the northern Rhineland. Its occurrence in Afrikaans – as a transported feature of Dutch, of course – would suggest its appearance in South African English is the result of an areal spread from the former language, given the close contact between Afrikaans and English in South Africa.


1.10 ‘Colonial lag’

Historically, commentators on varieties of English outside Britain tend to highlight their conservative nature. For the dialect of Forth and Bargy, mentioned above, there are remarks from as far back as 1577 by Richard Stanyhurst on the similarity between that variety and Chaucerian English which for Stanyhurst would have been a vague reference to an antique form of English (Miller and Power 1979). Latter-day writers refer to the language of the Elizabethan era or to that of Shakespeare and frequently claim that dialects tend to maintain this still (there are many such references to Irish English, for example, and to Appalachian English; Montgomery 1998, 2001: 107–9). Precisely what such labels mean is frequently not specified, the power of the argument seems to derive from its very vagueness. Nonetheless, a certain antiquity is the point being made and the situation where colonies seem to fall behind developments in the mainland is often labelled ‘colonial lag’ (Görlach 1987).

   But a closer look at allegedly conservative dialects reveals that they are not simply preserved versions of earlier forms of the language on the mainland but have themselves gone through processes of their own. Such processes can be inherited, i.e. overseas varieties continue processes initiated at their historical source (Branford 1994: 477). This is clearly the case with the raising of short front vowels in varieties of English in the southern hemisphere. Furthermore, varieties at new locations obviously undergo independent developments which may be triggered by language/dialect contact or result from internal motivation within the language or triggered by the new society using it. In addition, the specific nature of an overseas variety may rest substantially on dialect mixture, given settlers from different regions. In such cases the attention of linguists has rested on the nature of the mixture and the results it engendered; see the contribution by Gordon and Trudgill in the present volume.


1.11 Distributional patterning

Recent literature on varieties of English has concentrated on elements which were inherited by forms of the language which arose at new locations. Ongoing changes, such as the raising of short vowels just alluded to or the lowering and retraction of diphthongs, also to be found in the anglophone southern hemisphere, are just two examples of features inherited by varieties arising overseas. Another aspect of this complex is whether the realisations and rules are categorical or variable in their application. Furthermore, there may be hierarchies of constraints which are to be found with realisations and these may reflect the situation in the source dialect, indeed such hierachies may be the clearest indication that a certain dialect is the source for another, as Poplack and Tagliamonte have shown conclusively in their work of this subject (see Poplack and Tagliamonte, this volume, and the contributions in Poplack 2000).


1.12 The neglect of distinctions

Finally, one can mention that the neglect of distinctions, present in more standard forms of English, can be characteristic of a particular variety. A clear example of what is intended here is provided by the use of the so-called ‘extended present’ of Irish English (Filppula 1997). By this is meant the use of a present form of a verb to encompass an action which stretches back into the past. In such cases, for instance in sentences with the temporal adverbial since, e.g. He has been here since we moved to Dublin, English requires the present perfect. However, Irish English only uses the present and so neglects the tense distinction found in standard English, e.g. We’re living here for ten years now. A significant source for this usage in Ireland (it is also found in Scotland) may well be Irish where an equivalent to the present perfect of English does not exist.


1.13 Folk dialectology

The last topic to mention in this section is what has come to be known as folk dialectology. By this is meant examining how nonlinguists conceive of dialect distinctions and dialect areas. Preston (1993a: 338–44) gives an analysis of 138 south-eastern Michigan respondents’ outlines of the dialect area ‘southern’ in the United States. The broad view was generally correct but it covered a large area, much greater than what linguists would regard as ‘southern’. The respondents differed according to class affiliation and age. Both younger and lower-middle-class respondents regarded ‘southern’ as covering a larger area than did older and upper-middle-class respondents. Preston (1993a: 344–56) also conducted investigations into what nonlinguists viewed as areas of ‘correct’ speech and of ‘pleasant’ speech.

   The value of such investigations lies in the information it gives us about speakers’ attitudes to varieties other than their own. This in turn can help in accounting for such sociolinguistic movements as accommodation (Trudgill 1986) and dissociation (Hickey 2000b) and ultimately assist linguists in explaining externally motivated language change.


2 The spread of English

The dissemination of English beyond the island of Britain has a history which is over 800 years old, beginning with Ireland in the late twelfth century. The early settlement of Ireland by the English has largely been a matter of internal concern for scholars engaged in Irish English but it is of interest here because it is the earliest example of language mixture involving transported English and the insights gained here are of relevance to the examination of later instances of English at overseas locations. The situation of imported English to Ireland in the late twelfth century (from west Wales) provides information about the planting of English into a multicultural context in which Norman French was the superstrate and Irish the substrate of the host country (Hickey 1997a; this volume: chapter 3).

   For the establishment of forms of English outside Europe the early settlement of Ireland is also of considerable significance. In many instances the route for English across to the New World was out of Ireland rather than directly from England. This began with the deportation of politically undesirable Irish to Barbados in the early 1650s, continued with the departure of religious dissenters from Ulster to North America, chiefly Pennsylvania, throughout the eighteenth century and also involved the seasonal migration of Irish to Newfoundland on the eastern coast of Canada up until the first decades of the nineteenth century (Hickey 2002a). In numerical terms the major Irish exodus was in the middle of the nineteenth century with large-scale emigration to the eastern United States. Each of these situations resulted in different kinds of linguistic influence in the host regions and are dealt with in the relevant contributions in this volume. Furthermore, the transit route taken by immigrants is of significance. For instance, many of the Irish travelling to the New World used Canada as a point of entry and passed through the Ottawa Valley on their way to the United States (Charbonneau 1997; O’Gallagher 1984).





© Cambridge University Press

Inhoudsopgave

Introduction Raymond Hickey; Part I. Out of Britain: 1. Dialects of English and their transportation Raymond Hickey; 2. Scots and Scottish English Caroline Macafee; 3. Development and diffusion of Irish English Raymond Hickey; Part II. The New World: 4. The emergence of American English Merja Kytö; 5. The language of deported Londoners Laura Wright; 6. Remnant dialects in the coastal United States Walt Wolfram and Natalie Schilling-Estes; 7. Verbal -s in the (African American) English diaspora Shana Poplack and Sali Tagliamonte; 8. 'Canadian dainty': the rise and decline of Briticisms in mainland Canadian English J. K. Chambers; 9. The legacy of British and Irish English in Newfoundland Sandra Clarke; 10. The English dialect heritage of the Southern United States Edgar W. Schneider; 11. Solving Kurath's puzzle: establishing the antecedents of the American midland dialect region Michael Montgomery; 12. English dialect input to the Caribbean Raymond Hickey; Part III. The Southern Hemisphere: 13. South African English Roger Lass; 14. English transported to the south Atlantic Ocean: Tristan da Cunha Daniel Schreier; 15. English on the Falklands Andrea Sudbury; 16. English input to Australia Scott Kiesling; 17. English input to New Zealand Elizabeth Gordon and Peter Trudgill; 18. English input to the English-lexicon pidgins and creoles of the Pacific Suzanne Romaine; Part IV. English in Asia: 19. Asian Englishes, origin and structure Raymond Hickey; 20. South Asian Englishes Raymond Hickey; 21. South-east Asian Englishes Raymond Hickey; Part V. Appendixes: 22. Checklist of nonstandard features Raymond Hickey; 23. Glossary of terms Raymond Hickey; 24. General references Raymond Hickey; 25. Timeline for varieties of English Raymond Hickey; 26. Maps of anglophone locations Raymond Hickey.

Winkelvoorraad

Dit product is op dit moment niet op voorraad in een van onze vestigingen.