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History Of Theatre In Africa

History Of Theatre In Africa - ISBN: 9780521808132
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Beschrijving

This is the first full history of theatre in Africa and offers a comprehensive, yet accessible, account of this long and varied chronicle, written by a team of scholars in the field. Chapters include an examination of the concepts of ‘history’ and ‘theatre’ in Africa; North Africa; Francophone theatre; Anglophone West Africa; East Africa; Southern Africa; Lusophone African theatre; Mauritius and Reunion; and the African diaspora.

Details

Titel: History Of Theatre In Africa
Mediatype: Boek
Bindwijze: Gebonden
Taal: Engels
Aantal pagina's: 500
Uitgever: Cambridge University Press
Plaats van publicatie: 03
NUR: Reisgidsen Afrika
Editor: Banham, Martin
Afmetingen: 236 x 160 x 38
Gewicht: 950 gr
ISBN/ISBN13: 0521808138
ISBN/ISBN13: 9780521808132
Intern nummer: 2081046

Biografie (woord)

Martin Banham is Emeritus Professor of Drama and Theatre Studies at the School of English, University of Leeds.

Extra informatie

A History of Theatre in Africa
Cambridge University Press
0521808138 - A History of Theatre in Africa - Edited by - Martin Banham
Index
More information


Index




1960 Masks 151, 152, 153

9 Horas (Nine o’clock) 394

A Corda (The rope) 392, 395

A Dance of the Forests 153, 257

A Kind of Justice 289

A Lesson From Aloes 354

A Man of Character 151

A Metamorfose (Metamorphosis) 445

A Morte do Velho Kipacassa (The Death of Old Kipacassa) 396

A Panela de Ko-Ka-Mbala (Ko-Ka-Mbala’s Pot) 395

A Play 259

A Play of Giants 257

A Revolta da Casa do Ídolos (Revolt in the Idol-Worshipping House) 392, 396

A Season in the Congo 440

A Song for Biko 360

A Vida Verdadeira de Domingos Xavier (The True Life of Domingos Xavier) 395

A Vigil at my Mother’s Bedside 244

A Worm in the Bud 366

Aaidabi, Yusuf 83

Aare Agbaye 150

Abacha Sani 10

Abafumi Company (Uganda) 250, 259

Abah, Oga Steve 155

Abazakour, Mohamed 61

Abe Gubegna 200

Abedi, Bakari 238

Abibigromma 167

Aboakyer Deer-Catching Festival 159

Abra Pokou 125

Abraha Pokou ou la grande africaine 125

Abrantes, José Mena 395–6

Abu Rous, Kahlid 81

Abyad (Abiad), George 29, 61

Abyad, Dawlet 29

Academy (Lagos) 144, 145

Achimota School 161

Achu, Elizabeth 186

Acogny, Germaine 105

Acquaye, Saka 165, 166

Acting Benevolent Literary Society (Sudan) 81

Action for Orphans 305

Adagala, Seth 218, 219, 221

Adão e as Sete Pretas de Fuligem (Adam and the Seven Soot-Black Women) 401

Addy, Esi Sutherland 169

Adedeji, Joel xiv, 7, 9, 12, 141, 142, 147

Adejobi, Oyin 147

Adelaide van Beyeren 335

Adiko, Virgile 125

Adimu-Orisa (Eyo) funeral rites 140

Aeschylus 18

Afkawandahe 303

Afolayan, Ade (Ade Love) 147, 150

Africa 348

Africa and God 149

Africa Centre (London) 262

Africa Music Research Party 149

African and Malagasy Commission for Higher Education (CAMES) 86

African Artists Association (Kampala) 250, 255

African Consolidated Theatres 338, 340

African Music and Drama Association (AMDA) 351

African Theatre (Cape Town) 334, 337–8

African Union 12

African Victoria Theatre (Cape Town) 338

Afrikaanse-Hollandse Toneelvereeniging (Afrikaans-Dutch Theatre Association) 336

Afrocid (Guinea-Bissau) 393

Agbegijo 142

Ager Fikir Theatre 197, 200

Agovi, J. K. E. 159

Agravios de um Artista (An Artist’s Troubles) 401

Agro-Action Play 293

Ahmadu Bello University (Zaria) 154

Ahmed, Fathia Mohammed 82

Ahura, Tar 155

Aida 28

Aidoo, Ama Ata 166, 167

Aissawa 52

Aiye 150

Aiyelabola 142

Ajangila 142

Ajib wa Gharib 25

Ajofeebo 142

Akan 160

Akan-Ashanti Folk Tales 163

Akar, John 176, 177

Ake – The Years of Childhood 4

Ake Church Choir 144

Ake School of Entertainment 144, 146

Akerman, Anthony 361

Akpakaland 154

Al Abbadi, Ibrahim 81

Al Bihari, Sheikh Taguddin 79

Al Faki, Uthman Ali 83

Al Haj, Yahia 83

Al Hamidi, Unmar 83

Al Khidir, Omar 83

Al Kouri, Mohamed 61, 64

Al M’siyyah 46

Almahdi Attayeb 83

Al-Ma’arri 39

Al Mak Nimir 81

Al-Shahama Company 63, 64

Al Tahtawi, Sheikh Rifaa 28

Al Yazid, Mohamed 61, 64

Aladura Movement 148

Al-Agrebi, Muhammad 64

Alarinjo 140, 141, 142, 143, 148, 442

Al-Bsat 51, 52

Al-Dufani, Salama 63

Alemeyhu Khasay 202–3

Alemseged Tesfai 204

Alfredo, Casimiro 392

Algerian National Theatre 66

Al-Hakim, Tewfik 226

Ali in Asmara 203

Al-Kassar, Ali 29

Al-Khuli, Lutfi 31

All Africa Drama Competition 248

All For Oil 154

All My Sons 168

All the World’s a Stage 337–8

Alla Gbah (The Big Man) 177

Allahpoets 360

Allalou 43, 44, 61

Alliance Franco-camerounaise 191, 192

Alloula, Abdelkader 43, 44, 50, 52, 60

Al-Mahdiya, Munira 30

Al-Naqqash, Marun 54

Al-Naqqash, Salim 28

Al-Qabbani 29

Al-Qardahi, Soliman 29

Al-Sabur, Salah Abd 31

Al-Safi, Ahmad 64

Al-Salamony, Mohamed 34

Al-Sharqawy, Abdul Rahman 31

Amakali, Maria 305

Amakhosi 300, 304

Amali, Samson 153

Amato, Rob 355

Amayirikiti 260

Amazaalibwa 254

Amazoulou 125

Ambanasom, S. A. 184

Amégbléamé, Simon 130

Amen Corner 168

Amicale des Fonctionnaires de Niamey (Niger) 121

Amilcar Cabral ou la tempête en Guinée-Bissao 126

Amin, Idi 10

Aminata 224, 228

Amon d’Aby, F. J. 122

An Echo in the Bone 433, 438, 445

An Enemy of the People 226

Ana, Zé e os Escravos (Ana, Zé and the Slaves) 396

Ananse 160, 162

Ananse in the Land of Idiots 169

Anansegro 160, 164

Anansesem 160, 433

And Girls in their Sunday Dresses 361

And Palm Wine Will Flow 183

And the Dogs were Silent 440

Andoh-Wilson, George 166

Anjalay 412, 419

Anouilh 152

Anquandah, James 160

Antigone 353

Antigone in Creole 439

Antigone in Haiti 165

Apostle James set Foot on Earth 441

aquaquam beit 193

Ar rafd (Rejection) 80

Ardache, Saad 32

Arena contra Zumbi 444

Arena Theatre (Saõ Paulo) 444

Aristotle 38, 52

Arkhurst, Sandy 168

Aropin N’Teniyan 150

Arts Council of Ghana 165

Arts Theatre Production Group (Ibadan) 152

Arusha Little Theatre 237

Arusi (Wedding) 243

As Mãos dos Pretos (The Hands of Black Men) 394

As-Samaw’al 63

As Trinta Mulheres de Muzeleni (The Thirty Women from Muzelini) 389

As Virgens Loucas (The Crazy Virgins) 401

Asare, Yao 168, 169

Asgarally, Azize 410, 412–13

Ash Sheikh, Nasser 83

Ashur, Nu’man 31

Ashura 58, 59

Asinamali! 357

Asmara Theatre Association 203, 204

Assémien 119

Assémien Déhylé 119

Asseng, Protais 127

Associação Cultural Casa Velha 394

Associação Cultural Tchova Xita Duma 394

Association of Rhodesian Theatrical Societies (ARTS) 279, 296

Astley’s Circus 337

At Tayeb, Abdallah 80, 81, 82

At Tayeb, Ahmed 80

Atelier Théâtral Burkinabé 113, 129

Athanase, le professeur de lumière 122, 123

Aube africaine (An African Dawn) 103

audience awareness 168

Auto de Floripes (Príncipe) 402

autos 384–6, 399

Averroes 38

Avignon Festival 125

Awa 90

Awoonor, Kofi 164

Axworthy, Geoffrey 151

Ayandele, E. A. 143

Ayubu (Job) 242, 243

Azande ‘stylised invective’ 77, 78

azmaris performers 194–8

Babumini Francis (Uncle Francis) 296

Bachetarzi, Mahiedine 61

Badian, Séydou 87, 125, 126

Baffet, Roselyne 64

Bagamoyo College of the Arts 239, 243, 245

Bahjat, Mustafa 31

Bahumutsi Drama Group 359

Bailey, Brett 367

Bains, Andrew Geddes 334

Bakanda Theatre (Gbakanda) 294

Bakathir, Ali Ahmed 31

Bakel, Elimane see Nkashama, Ngandu 127

Baker, Betty 252

Bakht Ar Ruda Teachers Training Institute 80, 81

Balandier, Georges 88

Baldaque, Fernando 387

Ballets Guinéens 104

Balogun, Ola 125, 150

Bambara epic of Ségou 91

Bame, K. N. 162

Banavti, Joseph 183, 184

Banda, Innocent 289

Banham, Martin 151

Bannan 63, 64

Bantu Dramatic Society 342, 345

Bantu People’s Players 345

Bantu Theatre Company of Cape Town 351

Bappa, Salihu 155

Baramodi 295

Barber, Karin 111, 147

Bareti Players 351

Barnard, Chris 350

Barracks Theatre 336, 338

Bassa 115

Bast, Festival of 16

Baste 46

Baxter Theatre 359

Bayol 120

Béart, Charles 117, 118

Beasts of no Nation 183, 184

Béatrice du Congo 125

Beauty and the Beast 338

Beckett, Samuel 31, 152

Becommunistoch And Enat (By the Unity of the Communists) 201

Bedroom Magic 186

Before the Blackout 154

Before the Blowout 154

Before this Time Yesterday 183

Behan 152

Béhanzin 119, 120

Beier, Ulli 7, 150

Béjart, Maurice 1, 9

Bemba, Sylvain 124, 128

Ben-Abdallah, Mohammed 166–7

Bencheikh, Mohamed 61

Beni 235–8

Bennett, Louise 434

Berhanu Zerihun 200

Berlin Conference 11

Bernhardt, Ian 351, 352

Berque, Jacques 40

Berrah 41

Besong, Bate 182, 183, 184–7

Betrayal in the City 220–1

Bhunya Bombers 295

Bible 1, 3, 148, 151, 420

Bicknell, Peter 78

Bidat Ar-rma 59

Big Berin (Great funeral) 177

Bikoroa Plays 154

Birringer, Johannes 9

Black Dog/Inj’emnyama 357

Black Lass 294

Black Mamba (Kasoma) 289

Black Mamba (Ruganda) 261

Black, Stephen 340, 341

Blame Yourself 353

Blood 289, 290

Boal, Augusto 113, 168, 252, 302, 444

Bobongo dance theatre 90

Boesman and Lena 321

Boli 105

Bombastes Furioso 334

Bondekwe, L. S. 122, 123

Boniface, Charles 334

Bonjour monsieur le ministre 127

Book of the Dead, The 14

Bopaganang 295, 305

Bopha! 357

Bori Spirit Mediumship 140

Born in the RSA 321, 357, 358

Bornu Puppet Show 140

Borroto, Santiago 435

Botswana, University of 292

Botswana, University of, Travelling Theatre 287

Bouffes du Nord 45

Bouki in Paradise 439

Boukman, Daniel 431, 440

Bourguiba, Muhamad 63, 64

Branco, João 401

Brazilian Dramatic Company 145

Brecht 31, 161, 240, 321, 394, 444

Breitinger, Eckhard 185

Breytenbach, P. P. B. 349, 358

Bricks 302, 303

Bridge of Destiny 287

Brink, André 350

Brink, J. 94, 95

Brink, Melt 336

British Council 164, 167, 176, 217, 230, 237, 252, 288

British Drama League 345

Broken Dreams, Joys of War 361

Brook, Peter 44

Buabeng, Adeline Ama 163, 169

Buea, University of 185–6, 189–90, 191

buhu 46

Bukassa 10

Bukenya, Austin 221, 259

Bully, Aldwyn 438

Bulu 130

Bunyui, David Chuye 186

Buriani (Farewell) 239

Burkina Faso Union of Dramatic Groups 107

Butake, Bole 182, 183, 184–7, 188–90

Byram, Martin 292

Cabildo Teatral Santiago 441

Cairo International Festival of Experimental Theatre 34

Calvet, Louis-Jean 85

Can You Take It 353

Can’t Pay, Won’t Pay 226

Cantata (Togolese) 115

Cape Town Amateur Company 338

Capitango 403

Cardoso, Boaventura 396

Carmen com Filtro (Carmen with Filter) 445

Carmen com Filtro 2 (Carmen with Filter 2) 445

Carril, Pepe 433, 442, 445

Casley-Hayford, Joseph 162

Castells, Revd F. de P. 163

Caught in the Loop 186

Cena Lusófona 393

Centre International de Danses Traditionnelles et Contemporaines (Dakas) 105

Cercle Amical (Burkina Faso) 121

Cercle Culturel et Folklorique (Ivory Coast) 121

Césaire, Aimé 124, 410, 431, 435, 439, 443

Césaire, Ina 440, 445

Cetshwayo 343

Chabisi, Regina 293

Chacha, Chacha-Nyaigoti 225

Chaka 125, 126

Chaka ou le roi visionnaire 125

Chalo Amerudi (Chalo has Returned) 238

Chambira Women’s Theatre 305

Chambulikazi, Eberhard 245

Chancellor College Travelling Theatre (Malawi) 286, 294

Chaoui, Abdelouahed 61

Charletti, M. 64

Charley, Raymond Ayodele 178

Chassô (Truth) 393

Chauta’s Wrath 289

Che Guevara 286

Chekhov 31, 252

Chevrier, Jacques 105

Chibalo 391

Chidyausiku, Paul 296

Chief Above and Chief Below 351

Chifunyise, Stephen 289, 290, 298, 299, 301

Chifunyise, Tisa 299, 305

Chikwakwa Theatre 286, 292, 293

Child of Passage or The Epic of Ti-Jean 440

Children of Asazi 360

Children of the Goddess 151

Children of the Man-made Lake 169

Children’s Performing Arts Workshop (CHIPAWO) 299, 301

Children’s Puppet Theatre (Egypt) 32

Children’s Theatre (Egypt) 32

Chimera, Rocha 225

Chimombo 289

Chisiza, Du, Jr 294, 304, 305

Chisulo, Haggai 291

Chitikuta, Frank 294

Chung, Fay 286

Church Missionary Society (CMS) 1, 6, 143

Church of the Lord (Lagos) 148

Cincinatti 357

Clapperton, Hugh 139, 142

Clark, Ebun 149

Clark, J. P. (Clark-Bekederemo) 146, 151–3, 154

Clean Hands 229

Cloçon Son (Ground Heart) 403

Coetze, Ampie 344

Coker, Larry 167

Coker, Robert A. 145

Cole, Catherine 162

Colectivo de Artes Horizonte Nzinga Mbande 396

Collective Artists 155

Collins, John 162, 163

Combrink, Johan 335

Comédie Française 333

Coming Home 366

Coming of Age 438

Comme des flèches 128

Commedia dell’Arte 4, 43

Committed Artists of Namibia 302, 303

Community of West African States (CEAO) 86

Compagnie des Marionnettes Danaye Kanlanfeï 107

Companhia de Teatro Gungo 394

Companhia Nacional de Canto e Dança (Mozambique) 384

Companhia Teatral de Angola 389

Concert Party 115, 129, 162–3, 165

Concours de Radio-France International 412

Concours Théâtral Interafricain 123

Congreve 152

Constance, Zenos Obi 433, 446

Cook, David 249, 252

Coração d’Lagoa (Lagoon Heart) 394

Corneille 30

Cornevin, Robert 121

Cornut-Gentille, Bernard 121

Coronation Festival Plays 15

Cosmopolitan Club of Cape Coast 162

Costa, Jeli 396

Coulibaly, Yaya 107

Country Boy 177

Couto, Mia 394

Couvade 433, 438

Covarrubias, Francisco 441

Cracks 289

Craveirinha, José 394

Crime Does not Pay 353

Crossroads 355, 358

Cry Tamba 176

Cry the Whistle 287

Cumper, Pat 438

Curl up and Dye 367

D’Azevedo, Warren L 7

Da Graça, João Manuel Machado 394

Da Silva, Carlos 386

Dabiré, Pierre 126

Dadié, Bernard 87, 105, 119, 122, 124, 127

Dahmoune 43

Damascus Festival 81

Danço Congo 402

Daniachew Worku 198

Danquah, J. B. 163

Dar-al-Makhzen (The Sultan’s Palace) 51

Dar-es-Salaam Players 237

Dar-es-Salaam, University of 239–40, 245

Dark Voices Ring 361

Darqawa 52

Darwish, Sayyid 29

Davashe, Mackay 355

Davies, A. B. 147

De Aguilar, Birch 269

De Albuquerque, Orlando 392

De Almeida, Germano 401

De Andrade, Costa 391

De Castro, Norberto 389

De Dronkaard 335

De Figueiredo, Jaime 401

De Graft, Joe 165, 184, 221

De Holanda, Chico Buarque 394

De Jonge Kunstschilder (The Young Artist) 336

De Macedo, Donaldo Pereira 401

De Macedo, Fernando 403

De Moor, Teda 350

De Souza, Ruth 443

De Wet, Reza 359, 365–6

Dead End 361

Dear Parent and Ogre 176

Debeza’s Baboons 345

Decker, Thomas 177–8

Diepe Grond (Deep ground) 365

Delafosse, Maurice 93

Delivrans! 440

Democracy Boulevard 304

Dench, Judy 9

Dervain, Eugène 91, 125

Descarado (Shameless) 401

Description d’Egypte 28

Desert Encroaches 154

Destino Cruel (Cruel Fate) 401

Devésa, Jean-Michel 131

Dhikrs 50

Dhlomo, Herbert 342–4, 345

Dia, Amadou Cissé 125

Diabaté, Massa Makan 91, 125

Diagana, Moussa 124, 129

Diálogos com Peripécia (Dialogue with Incidents) 392

Dias, Baltazar 402

Diawara, G. 93, 94

Dibakwane, Winkie 353

Dickens, Charles 348

Didiga 109

Didiga hunter narrative 129

Didiga Theatre 129

Die Dieper Reg (The deeper right) 349

Dieu-Chose (God-thing) 107

Dike, Fatima 321, 355

Dikitsheng 358

Dikobe, Modikwe 358

Dimetos 354

Dindi, Alex 219

Dingana 343

Diop, Alioune 92

Diop, Birago 91

Diop, Boubacar Boris 126

Diphala Traditional Dance and Drama 295

Diwani ya Mnyampala 242

Diyab, Mahmud 31

Djeha 42–3, 44, 45, 58, 67

Djurdjurassique Bled 44

Dlamini, Frank 291

Doguicimi 165

Doh, Emmanuel Fru 181

Door Ijver Bloeit de Kunst 335

Door Ijver Vruchtbaar 334

Douga 104

Doutté, Edmond 58

Downfall of Zacharia Fee 176

Dr Margai 177

Drama Studio (Accra) 161, 167, 169

Dramateers 351

Drawing Room Theatre (Cape Town) 338

Dream on Monkey Mountain 433, 437, 438, 445

Dream Play 259

Drie Susters 2 (Three sisters 2) 365

Drif (Crossings) 365

Dropadi 420

Drumbeats on Kirinyaga 225

Drums and Colours 437

Drury Lane Theatre (Cape Town) 338

Dryden 152

Dschang, University of 186

Du Bois, W. E. B. 11

Du Toit, S. J. and D. F. (‘Oom Lokomotief’) 336

Dumas Choir 165

Dunham, Katherine 105

Dunia Iliyofarakana (The World in Conflict) 240

Dunia Imeharibika (The World in Ruins) 240

Dunlop Play 363

Dürrenmatt 152

Duvignaud, Jean 88

E Tudo a Água Levou (Everything’s gone with the Water) 394

Earth Players 357

Easmon, Raymond Sarif 176, 177

Eastern Nigerian Theatre Group 152

Echeruo, Michael 140

Eda/Everyman 176, 239, 252

Edi Festival (Ile-Ife) 140

Edinburgh, University of 4

Edkvist, Ingela 98

Edufa 164, 165

Eegun Alare 140

Eegun Okura 143

Efe 149

Effoui, Kossi 124

Egbe Ife Drama Group 146

Egoli: City of Gold 360

Egungun 2, 140, 141

Egungun apidan 141

Egyptian Troupe for Acting and Music 30

Ekaré, Atou 107

Ekong 143

Ekpe Festival 140

Ekukole, Robert 183, 185

Ekwere, John 152

Ekwuazi, Hyginus 8

El Alfi, Nabil 32

El Guindy, Yousry 34

El Hakim, Tewfik 29, 30

El Ramly, Lenin 34

El Zirkany, Abdel Rahim 32

Electra com Creta (Electra with Crete) 445

Elinga Teatro 396

Empire Day entertainments 162

Enany, Mohamed 34

Endalkachew Makonnen 193

English Theatrical Amateur Company (Cape Town) 337

Ensemble de Ballet du Sénégal 104

Entraves 122

Entrevue de Samory et du Capitaine Péroz 119

Equatorium 91

Esan, Olanipekun 8

Esau Mthethwe’s Lucky Stars 345, 348

Espace Culturel Ganbidi (Burkina Faso) 131

Ethéart, Liautaud 435

Etherton, Michael 286

Ethiopia Unbound 162

ETU-LENE 397

Euripides 18

European Club House, the 145

Evina, Jean Mba 127

Ewe 130

Exhibition Theatre (Cape Town) 339

Eyadema, Gnassingbe 10, 112

Eyoh, Hansel Ndumbe 181, 183, 184, 187, 190

Ezeinogbe (Igbo masquerade play) 140

Fabian, Johannes 111

Fabiana 396

Fabula: Yawreoch Commedia (Fable: the Comedy of Animals) 195

Fahmi, Fawzy 34

Faithful Messengers 299

Falkland, James 221, 229

Fall, Marouba 125

Famadihana 88, 98

Fambidzanai Theatre Group (Harare) 299

Fanon, Frantz 440

Farag, Alfred 31

Farewell to Babylon 154

Faried, Siddiq 80

Fast Norman and his Friends 303

Fatouma ou la machine à créer des enfants (Fatouma, or the Breeding Machine) 113

Fatunde, Tunde 154

Faustus in Africa! 367

Favory, Henri 410, 412–13, 419

fdawi 41

Feather Woman of the Jungle 7

Federation of Amateur Theatrical Societies of South Africa (FATSSA) 349

Feitiço e Religião (Sorcery and religion) 390

Felipe, Carlos 442

Fellag 44

Ferguson, Jennifer 326

Ferreira, Cândido 401

FESTAC 221, 257

Festival Africain de Théâtre Francophone (FATF) 124

Festival International des Francophonies 87, 124

Festival International du Théâtre des Marionnettes (FITMO) 87, 124

Festival International du théâtre pour le développement (FITD) 124

Festival of Negro Arts 124

Festival of the Sultan of Learners 52, 59

Fête d’Art Indigène 119

Fiawoo, Kwasi 130, 163–4

Fifteen Minutes of Patriotism 242

Filho, Antunes 444, 445

Finnegan, Ruth 314

First Festival of Historical Drama (Cape Coast) 167

Flame Players (Yaounde) 183–5

Flash and Crash Days 445

Fleury, Alibee 435

Flight from the Mahabareth 366

Fo, Dario 226

Forbidden Fruit 436

Force Theatre 294

Foriwa (Foruwa) 164, 165

Fouche, Franck 439

Fourie, Pieter 350

Francis the Parisian 111

Franketienne 439

Fratti, Mario 286

Freelance Players (Ghana) 166

Freetong Players 178, 179

Freire, Paolo 252

French Cultural Centre (Nairobi) 230

French Dramatic Artistes (Mauritius) 338

Friday’s bread on Monday 354

Frisch 152

Fruit of the Flesh 186

Fry 152

Fugard, Athol 183, 186, 321, 351, 352, 353–4, 363, 394, 397

Full Bellies, Empty Bellies 440

Fumane, João 390

Funny Happy 186

Fwabena Africa 294

Fwemba 274–7

Gadeau, Coffi 123

Gallows for Mr Scariot 363

Gamal, Samia 33

Game of Silence 221

Gangsters and Dirty Work 360

Garagöz 53, 54–5, 67 see also Karagöz

Garber, Clifford Shefumi 178

Garrison Players (Cape Town) 338

Garvey, Marcus 11, 436, 443

Gathwe, Tirus 219

gawwal 41

Gbadamosi 7

Gbagbo, Laurent 91, 125

Gbakanda Tiata (Bakanda) 178

Gbana Bendu (The tough guy) 177

Gbanou, Selom 130

Gbileka, Saint E. T. 144

Ge’ez 193

Gebremeskel Gebregzibher 203

Gelede 140

General Baron of the Cross or Masked Silence 439

General Secretariat for Mobilisation and Propaganda (Zaire) 112

Genet, Jean 261

Genvrin, Emmanuel 410–16

Gerald, Steven 167

Ghana Drama Studio Players 164

Ghana Experimental Theatre Players 164

Ghana International Performing Arts Society (GIPAS) 168

Ghana National Theatre Movement 164

Ghana, University of, Legon 165, 166

Ghana, University of, School of Performing Arts 168

Ghana, University of, Students Theatre 166

Ghanem, Samir 34

Ghetto Artists 295, 305

Ghost Catcher 141

Gibbons, Rawle 438

Gikuyu language 222

Gilbert and Sullivan 237, 339

Gilbert, Doho 182, 188–90

Gilkes, Michael 431, 433, 438, 446

Githae-Mugo, Micere 221, 222–3

Give Us This Day 354

Giza Limeingia (The Dawn of Darkness) 240

Glasshouse 355

Glasshouses 228

Glen Norah Women’s Theatre Group 299, 305

Glissant, Edouard 440

Glover Memorial Hall (Lagos) 145, 146, 148

Goede Hoop Lodge 334

Gogol 152

Goldsmith, Oliver 337, 345

Gon 106

Gongoli mask 174

Good Samaritan Society 165

Gordon Memorial College, Khartoum 80

Gorée 361

Gott, Howard 279

Govender, Ronnie and Kessie 366

Graham’s Town Theatrical Amateur Company 334

Grahamstown Festival 365

Grant, Sue-Pam 367

Griaule, Marcel 104

Griot 91, 92, 108, 433, 441

Griot-Fuler 92

Grip’am 185

Grupo Cénico das Forças Populares de Libertação (FRELIMO) 391

Grupo Cénico dos C. F. M. 394

Grupo de Amadores de Teatro 395

Grupo de Instrutores de Teatro (GIT) 395

Grupo de Teatro M’beu 394

Grupo Experimental de Teatro (GET) 395

Grupo Hopalangatana 394

Grupo Teatral de Assatij 397

Guarnieri, Gianfrancesco 444

Guerilla Goatherd 302

Guerra, Henrique 395

Guild of Artists of Dionysus 20

Guingané, Jean-Pierre 107, 129, 131

Gule wa Mkulu (Big dance) 268–71

Guy, Camille 118

Gwangwa’a, Thomas 183, 185

Gwe Waliyo (Were You There?) 254

Ha Hu Ba Sidist Wore (ABC in Six Months) 200

Haarhoff, Dorian 302

Habart, Michael 38

Hadithi na Mauaji (The Tale of Murders) 241

Hadji Eivaz 54

Hadra 50

Haffner, Charlie 178, 179

Hafiz, Abdel Halim 31

Hagher, Iyorwuese 154, 155

Haile Mariam Mamo 198

Haile Selassie Theatre 198, 199

Hains, Susan 300, 301

hakiya 41

Halawa, Fayez 33

Halim, Ahmed Abdel 32

Halqa 40–1, 43, 46, 47, 50, 51, 53, 59, 60, 67

Halte à la diarrhée (Stop the Diarrhoea) 113

Hammad, Nimat 82, 83

Hammocks to Bridges 187

Handspring Puppet Company 365, 367

Hanga 358

Hangula, Vickson 303

Harakati Za Ukombozi (The Struggle for Liberation) 239

Hardy, George 117

Harper, Peggy 104

Harrison, Tony 19

Hashim, Badr Uddin 83

Hathor of Dendera 16

Hatia (Guilt) 240

Hauli, D. E. 240

Have You Seen Zandile? 321

Heavensgate 254

Heb Sed 15, 17

Helen 18

Helena’s Hope Ltd 341

Hello and Goodbye 321, 352

Henri Christophe 437

Henshaw, James Ene 151, 165, 237

Hernández Espinosa, Eugenio 431, 442, 446

Héros d’eau 91

Heshima Yangu (My honour) 239

Hey Listen! 357

Higazi, Ibrahim 83

Higazi, Salama 29

Higher Institute for Arabic Music (Egypt) 31

Higher Institute of Dramatic Art (Egypt) 30

hikaya 42

Hilali, Izzudin 83

Hill, Errol 431, 432, 434, 437, 439, 446

Hill, Frank 436

Hippolite, Dominique 439

Hippolyte, Kendal 434

Hira gasy 88, 93, 98–101, 102

His Father’s Will 177

Hmadsha 52

Hoeane, Masitha 287, 293, 361

Honwana, Luis Bernardo 394

Horn, Andrew 261, 286

How Long? 353

Hudson, Sir Arnold 176

Hugenot, Andre 344

Huizinga, J. 89, 108

Huka 240

hurafa 42

Hurricane 436

Hussein, Ebrahim 239, 240, 242, 243

I Am Not for Sale 290

I Believe 353

I Dey I Nor Du 177

I Love My Country But . . . 305

I Resign 290

Ibadan, University College Dramatic Society 152

Ibadan, University of 4

Ibadan, University of, School of Drama 149, 151, 152

Ibadan, University of, Theatre Arts Department 155

Ibrahim, Abdullahi Ali 83

Ibsen, Henrik 31, 81, 152, 218, 226

Idris, Yusef 31

Ifa divination poetry 7

Ife, University of 154

Ifyabukaya 290

Igbo 130

Ija Ominira 150

Ijimere, Obotunde 239, 252

Ikaki Tortoise Masquerade 140, 143

Il Ritorno d’Ulisse 367

Ilanga lizophumela abasebenzi (The Sun will Rise for the Workers) 362

Illah, John Sanni 155

Iluba Elimnyama 300

Imam, Adel 34

Imbuga, Francis 220–1, 224, 228

Imfoduso 362

iMumbo Jumbo and the Days of Miracle and Wonder 367

In a Different Light 366

Incwala ceremony 272–7, 284–5

Indaba 300, 305

Indépendan-tristes 127

Indic theatre 366

International Festival of Puppet Theatre 107

International Monetary Fund 11

International Theatre Institute (ITI) 107

Intissar al haq (The Victory of Right) 64

Ionesco 31

Ipi Tombi 354

Ipi Tombi? 367

Iqaw 200

Iru 88

Islamic Teacher 98

Island Memories 440, 445

Ithesho (The Job) 364

iwontunwosi 7

Iyoel Yohannes 197

Izibongelo 320

Jadot, J. M. 114

Jaguar Jokers Concert Party 163

Jaiyesimi 150

Jamalludin, Uthman 83

James, C. L. R. 435, 436

Jamma, Fidaili 83

Janie, Benjamin 289

Jankariwo 154

Jaomanoro, David 128

Jarry, Alfred 414

Javali-Javalismo (Wild Hog and Being a Hog) 392

Je ne paie pas 114

Je, soussigné, cardiaque 127

Jeannette troupe 130

Jensen, Jan 108

Jestina’s Calypso 438

Jeunes Acteurs du Katanga 112

Jewels of the Shrine 151

Jeyifo, Biodun 147

Jim Comes to Jo’burg 367

Jiwe la Kwanza (The first stone) 239

Joaquim Chofer (Joaquim the Chauffeur) 394

Job, Norman 303

Jogoo Kijijini/Ngao ya Jadi (The Village Cock/The Shield of Tradition) 243

John, Errol 438, 446

John, Juliana 177, 178

Johnson, Bob 162, 165

Jonson, Ben 152

Joseph, Alan and Francis 356

Joubert, Elsa 359

Julius Caesar 177, 242, 252, 344, 365, 409

JULU 397

Junction Avenue Theatre Company 356–9, 362, 364, 365, 367

Just for Women (Harare) 299

Justin Disasi 122

K’a s’ooto k’a ku 8

K’oze kube nini (How Long Will We Suffer?) 363

Ka, Abdou Anta 125

Kaatje Kekkelbek 334

Kabako theatre troupe 107

Kabary 100

Kadara 150

Kaduma, Godwin 239, 240

Kafka, Franz 444

Kafra-Biatanga 126

Kailondo Tiata 178

Kakadebul mask 174

Kaki, Abderahmane 43, 44, 50

Kakila 396

Kalela 238, 274–7

Kalthoum, Um 31

Kama Kazi Players (Kenya) 227

Kamabolon Festival 88, 108

Kamara, Foday M. 178

Kamiriithu Community Cultural and Educational Centre 222–4, 226–7, 298

Kamkwatira, Gertrude 305

Kamlongera, Christopher 289

Kampala Amateur Theatre (KATS) 250

Kampala City Players 250

Kampaoré, Prosper 113, 129

Kani, John 354, 356, 397

Kanna hy kô Huistoe 350

Kanyama Production Unit Theatre 294

Kapalelpale 291

Kapeya, Mwansa 290

Kapua Players 178

Kapumpa, Mumba 291

Kaputula la Marx (The Shorts of Marx) 243

Kara Geuz 54

Karagöz 25 see also Garagöz

Karioka, Tahia 33

Kaselezo (Womb Waters Breaking) 439

Kasigwa, Barnabas 225

Kasoma, Kabwe 289

Katana, Mbabi 254

Katikiro 116

Katutura 59 302

Kawadwa, Byron 249, 250, 253, 255–6, 257–9, 261

Kazembe and the Portuguese 282

Kebede Mikael 193, 198

Keita, Fodéba 102, 103, 104

Kelepile, Jeppe 292

Kenge Young Singers Troupe 116

Kente, Gibson 351, 352–3, 357, 359, 363

Kentridge, William 367

Kenya Schools and Colleges Drama Festival 217, 218, 220, 230

Kenyatta, Jomo 11

Kerr, David 286

Key Soap Concert Party 163, 168

Kezilahabi, E. 242, 243

Khairi, Badie 29

Khaketla, Mrs. N. M. 281

Khaketla, R. M. 281

Khalil, Yusuf 83

Khartoum National Council of Arts and Letters 80

Khirqa costume 79

Khosa, Ungulani Ba Ka 394

Kidd, Ross 292, 297

Kidenda, George Otiu 228

Kijiji cha Urithi (The Inherited Village) 241

Kijiji Chetu (Our village) 240

Kilio 225

Kilio cha Haki (The Cry for Justice) 223

Kilo, Asheri 182, 186, 189–90

Kimbangui, Simon 116

Kimoli, Arthur 221

kinet 197–9, 201

King Baabu 154

King Creon 439

King Elejigbo and Prince Abeje of Kontagora 146

King Emene 153

King Kong 342, 351, 352

King Lion’s Law 168

Kingizila 109

Kinjeketile 239, 242

Kintu 259

Kinyarwanda 85

Kironde, Erisa 249, 259

Kirundi 85

Kisses of Fate 220

Kiswahili 122, 221

Kithaka wa Mberia 225

Kitsao, Jay 225

Ki-Yi Mbock 129

Kiyingi, Wycliffe 250, 253, 255, 256–7, 258

Klotz, Phyllis 362

Kodzidan house, Atwia Ekumfi 161

Koly, Souleymane 97, 129

Koma 364

Konaké, Sory 91, 125

Konaté, Musa 124, 128

Kondo le requin 125

Kongi’s Harvest 166

Kono 94

Konserta masina 130

Kontikiti Theatre 178

Konya, Allan 219

Kopa, Khadija 244

Kopano ke Motla! (Unity is Strength) 293

Koran 27, 39, 62, 98

Kotèba 93–7, 110

Kotèba Ensemble 97, 129

Kotèba National Troupe 97

Kote-do 94

Kotzebue 335

Kramer, David 326

Krito 8

Kru Dance of Death 172–5

Ksentini 43

Ksentini, Rachid 61

Kuru Development Trust (Ghanzi) 320

Kusum Agoromba 165

Kuwirirana Theatre Group (Bulawayo) 299

Kwa Mashu Streetcleaners Play 363

Kwagh-hir 140, 143

Kwali, Moses 291

Kwao Adjoba 122

Kwathu Arts Theatre (Malawi) 294

Kyembe 112

L’Ecole William Ponty 117–21, 122, 127

L’Election d’un roi au Dahomey 119

L’Empire des ombres vivants 127

L’Enfant Mbénè 107

L’Entrevue de Béhanzin et de Bayol 118

L’Epopée de la reine Abla Pokou 125

L’Exil d’Albouri 91, 125

L’Oeil 127

L’Or du diable 128

L’Oracle 127

L’Os de Mor Lam 91

La Duma (It Thundered) 353

La Francophonie 86

La Maison morte 127

La Marmite de Koka-Mbala 127

La Mort de Chaka 125, 126

La Noche de los asesinos (Night of the Assassins) 442

La Parenthèse de sang 109, 127

La Puissance de Um 109, 128

La Reine scélérate 91

La Rencontre de Béhanzin et de Bayol 119

La Retraite 128

La Rue des mouches 109

La Ruse du Diégué 119, 120

La Secrétaire particulière 127

La Simona 442

La Termitière 109

La Tortue qui chante 91, 127

La Tragédie de l’indépendance 127

La Tragédie du roi Christophe 124, 440

La Voix de la Jeunesse Kantangaise 111

Labiche, Eugène 122

Labouret, Henri 93, 95

Ladipo, Duro 147, 149–50, 152, 185, 254

Lady Precious Stream 161

Ladysmith Black Mambazo 325

Laedza Batanani 292–3, 294

Lagos Club House 145

Lagos Observer 144

Lagos, Kings’ College 4, 9

Lake God 183

Lamko, Koulsky 128

Lander, Richard 139, 142

Lane, Edward 22, 25

Lanke Omuti 149, 150, 152

Layeni, A. A. 147

Le Bal de Ndinga 126

Le Bonheur dans l’urne 114

Le Cercle au féminin 128

Le Due calebasse 92

Le Grand destin de Soundjata 91, 125

Le Maréchal Nninkon Nniku 91, 126

Le Président 127

Le Secret des dieux 109, 129

Le Train spécial de son excellence 127

Légende du Wagadou vue par Sia Yatebere 129

Leloup, Jacqueline 123

Lepervenche chemin de fer 415–16

Les Amazoulous 125

Les Cloches 107

Les Derniers jours de Lat Dior 125

Les Prétendants rivaux (The Rival Suitors) 121

Les Recrutés de Monsieur Maurice (Mr Maurice’s recruits) 123

Leshoai, Bob 351

Lesotho, University of 287

Lhongo, Lindo 389

Library of Congress Oral History Project 22

Lifa 353

Ligier, Françoise 130

Lihamba, Amandina 239, 243, 245

Liking, Werewere 91, 105, 106, 107, 109, 124, 127, 128–9, 131

Likongwe, Smith 288

Limoges Festival 131

Lina Ubani (There is Panacea) 242

Lindo, Archie 436

Lingala 122

Linkfest 305

Li – The Prisoner of Conscience 410, 412

Littlewood, Joan 356

Living Echoes 168

Lobão (Correia Domingos) 396

Lokko, Sophia 159

Lonjezo 294

Looking for Muruga 366

Love and Crime 177

Love and the Hyphen 340, 341

Love on Credit 183

Love, Crime and Johannesburg 359

Lovelace, Earl 438

Lucey, Roger 326

Lulli, Jean-Baptiste 115

Lusaka Playhouse 291

Lwaki Sekukulu (Why Christmas?) 254

Lwanda Magere 224

Lyoka, Hassan 240

Lyric Operetta Musical Theatre (Egypt) 32

419

Ma dea 442

Maasai language 220

Mabatini (Iron sheets) 239

Macbeth 9, 445

Macedo, Jorge 395

Macpherson, Margaret 249

Macunaima 445

Madame Blanché (Bulawayo) 278

Madani Puppet Theatre 39

Maddy, Yulisa Amadu 177, 178

Madzi Akatayika (If the Water is Spilt) 294

Madzikatire, Safirio 296

Mafuta (Oil) 243

Magosi Dedicated Artists 295, 304

Magrita Prinslo 336

Magubane, Cyril 355

Mahabharata 420

Mahber Theatre Dekabet (Ma.Te.De. Indigenous Theatre Association) 203

Mahdi, Ali 83

Mahmoud 83

Mahmoud, Rabiha Mohammed 82

Maimo, Sankie 185

Maimona, João 392

Mais, Roger 436

Maitisong Festival 305

Maitu Njugira (Mother Sing for Me) 223

Majangwa 260

Majeed, Hassan Abdul 80

Majid, Aasia Abdul 82

Majiet 333

Majitu 225

Majlis 42

Makanya, George 351

Makaririra Kioro (They’ll Cry in the Toilet) 230

Makazi Mapya (New Settlement) 241

Makeba, Miriam 352

Makerere Free Travelling Theatre 252, 259

Makerere University 219, 249, 262, 263

Makishi 270–1

Makonnen Endalkachew 198

Makonnen Hapte-Wold 197

Makote 396

Makwekwe 225

Malagasy 85

Malaku Baggosaw 196–7

Malaria 344

Malikopo 282, 290

Malilangwe Trust 305

Malipenga 238, 274–7

Mallasi, Hussein 81

Mama and the Load 353

Mambo Arts Trust 295

Mamzel Zann 419

Man Better Man 434, 437

Man No Rest Party 188

Man Now Etiopiawe? (Who is the Ethiopian?) 200

Manaka, Matsemela 356, 359–61, 364, 365

Manana, the Jazz Prophet 352

Manda, Edwin 283

Mandela 10, 330

Mandela Theatre Group 243

Manet, Eduardo 442

Mangwana 305

Manhattan Brothers 352

Manim, Mannie 356

Mann, Chris Zithulele 326

Mapenzi ni Hasara (Love has no Benefits) 241

Maplanka, Martha 292

Maponya, Maishe 356, 359–61, 364

Maqama 42

Maqamat 38

Marabi 358

Maraboutic rituals 49

Maran, René 118

Marché des Arts du Spectacle Africain (MASA) 87, 124

Maria Antonia 442

Maria, Maria 357

Mariage Forcé 188, 195

Marian Congress 1

Marie-Dessembre 410–11

Market Theatre (Johannesburg) 261, 306, 356–9, 362, 365

Marotholi Travelling Theatre (MTT) 293, 361, 364

Mars, Louis 432, 439

Marson, Una 435, 436

Marti, Jose 441

Martins, Jorge 401

Martins, José F. 401

Masabe 433

Masekela, Hugh 357

Mashetani (Devils) 240

Masinga, K. E. 351

Masiye, Andreya 282, 286, 289

Mason, Oladipo Robin 177

Master Harold and the Boys 354

Matatu 169

Mathewos Bekele 198

Matrimonial Tears 190

Matura, Mustapha 167

Maxwell, Marina 433, 439

Mazibuko, Doreen 364

Mazrui, Alamin 223

Mbandaankatt 92

Mbandd 92

Mbari Centre (Ibadan) 152–3, 154

Mbeni 274–7

Mberenge Kamulali 256

Mbewe, Smart Likhaya 291

Mbilizi, Owen 288

Mbiriri, Bright 301

Mbogo, Emmanuel 240

Mbowa, Rose 252, 259, 261–2, 263

Mbunda, S. 242

Mbuya Nehanda 299

Mchira wa Buluzi 294

McLaren, Robert 201, 298–301, 355

Mda, Zakes 287, 293, 361, 364

Meddah 41, 44, 47, 50, 51, 53, 55, 59, 67

Medea 442

Medicine for Love 151, 237

Medupi Writers Association 359

Meetings des Partis Politiques 188

Meheux, Adeyemi 178

Meillassoux, Claude 96

Mekunnu Melody 154

Mémoires d’isles: Maman N et Maman F 440

Memphite Drama 14

Mendes, Gilberto 394

Mendes, Orlando 392

Menelik School (Ethiopia) 196

Menga, Guy 127, 395

Menget, John 186

Mengistu Lemma 193, 199–200

Mercator 8

Mercenaries 291

Meropa 354

Mesguich, Daniel 123

Messika, Habiba 63

Metawa, Karam 32

Mfantsipim 161, 162

Mganda 238

Mhall-Shahed 45

Mhando, Martin 242

Mhangwane, Sam 353

Mhlanga, Cont 300

Mhlope, Gcina 321, 359

Mhondero 300

Midiohouan, Guy Ossito 85, 86

Mihloti (Tears) 359

Mike, Chuck 155, 168

Millennium Production House 295

Miller, Arthur 152, 218, 444

Min Adja-O 122

MINDELACT 401

Mipasho 244

Miracle de Théophile 115

Mirakel (Miracle) 365

Mis (Dung/Mass) 365

Mister Tameklor 111

Mitumba Ndui (The Pox) 243

Miujiza Players 226

Miujiza Theatre 229

Mizizi Creative Centre 228

Mkhumbane 364

Mkumbane 352

Mkutano wa Pili wa Ndege (The Second Conference of Birds) 243

Mngadi, Mahluli 293

Mngoma, Khoti 348

Mniai, Mehdi 61

Mnthali, Felix 287

Mnyampala, Mathias 242

Mobutu 10, 112

Modisane, Bloke 352

Mofokeng, Twenyman 281

Mofta, Dr Ragheb 22

Mogobe, Thulaganyo 287

Mogomotsiemang 303

Mohabbazeen 25

Mohlamme, Boikie 353

Moiketse, Sports 292

Molière 47, 54, 95, 115, 117, 152, 168, 199, 218, 394

Moments 364

Moneblum ou l’homme bleu 90, 91

Mongita, Albert 122

Monologue d’or et noces d’argent pour douze personnages 131

Monsieur Thogo-Gnini 127

Monsieur Toussaint 440

Montez, Caetano 387

Mooi Street Moves 367

Moon on a Rainbow Shawl 438

Moremi 149, 150

Morisseau-LeRoy, Felix 162, 165, 431, 439, 446

Morna 400

Moroccan National Theatre 66

Morountodun 154

Mortimer 152

Mosalele, Lucky 303

Mosali Eo U Neileng Eena (The Woman you Gave Me) 281

Moshoeshoe 343

Moshoeshoe ke Baruti (Moshoeshoe and the Missionaries) 281

Mosia, Meshack 351

Mother Uganda and her Children 262

Motsatsele II 281

Motsielo, Griffiths 347, 348

Mouliéras, Auguste 57

Mpagi, James 251

Mphalele, Ezekiel 348, 351

mpihira gasy 98

Mpimpi (Black manager) 364

Mqina, the Revd 354

Mshido Players (Kenyatta University) 221

Msomi, Welcome 354

Mthoba, James 356

Mtonga, Mapopa 286, 291

Mtubani, Victor 289

Mtwa, Credo 355

Mtwa, Percy 357

Mudaba, Yoka 124

Mudra Afrique Dance Center 105

Muduma kwe Kwaffe 257

Mufulira Arts Society 291

Mufwankolo popular theatre of Elizabethville 111, 112, 117

Muganda 274–7

Mugathe Mubogothi (His Excellency Mubogothi) 230

Muhando, Penina Mlama 239–40, 242, 243, 245

Muhogo Mchungu (A Bitter Cassava) 238

Muhongo-a-Kasulo 389

Mukibi, Christopher 261

Mukulu, Alex 261, 263

Mukwava wa Wahehe 239

Mulekwa, Charles 263

Muller, Heiner 445

Mulokozi, M. 239

Mulwa, David 221, 228–9

Mumba, Norah 305

Mumma, Opiyo 222

Mungoni, Edward 282, 290

Munyenge 184

Muqaddam 52

Muquallid 41

Murder in the Cathedral 176

Murdering the Soul 305

Musgrave, R. 340

Music, Drama and Literature Institute, Cape Town (MDALI) 359

Musinga Drama Group 185

Musinga, Victor 185

Mutahi, Wahome 222, 230

Mutia, Babila 183

Mutual Dra-poets 186

Mutumbela, Gogo 394

Muungano (Union) 244

mvet 90, 91

Mwa Shimwamba Kopolo 282

Mwansa, Dickson 291

Mwaziona 289

Mwenesi, Steve 229

Mwenyekiti (The Chairman) 239

Mwrebi, Gwigwi 351

My Life 354

N’Diaye, Mandiaye 92

N’dumbe, Alexandre Kum’a 126

N’Solêh troupe 107

Na Machamba da Maria (In Maria’s Small Plot) 392

Na Mami Bohn Am 177

nadira 42

Nag, Generaal (Goodnight, General) 365

Naidoo, Muthal 366

Naira Has No Gender 154

Nairobi University Free Travelling Theatre 252

Nairobi, University of 220, 221

Najib al-Rihani Comic Troupe 29

Nakasa, Nat 352

Namibia, University of 304

Namirembe Festival (Uganda) 249

Nandyala ou a Tirania dos Monstros (Nandyala, or the Tyranny of Monsters) 396

Nansi le Ndoda (Here is the man) 300

Napata Habibati (My beloved Napata) 82

Nascimento, Abdias do 443

National Cultural Troupes (Tanzania) 239

National Dance Company (Zimbabwe) 299

National Dance Ensemble (Ghana) 167

National Dance Troupe (Sierra Leone) 176, 179

National Dance Troupe (Zambia) 283

National Festival of Arts and Culture (FENAC) 185

National Folk Dance Troupe (Egypt) 32

National Puppet Theatre Company (Mali) 107

National Symphony Orchestra (Ghana) 167

National Theatre (Algeria) 43, 44

National Theatre (Congo) 123

National Theatre (Ghana) 163, 166–9

National Theatre (Kenya) 217–19, 221, 222–3, 224, 230

National Theatre (Namibia) 303

National Theatre (Uganda) 247, 250

National Theatre Company (Egypt) 28

National Theatre League (Sierra Leone) 177

National Theatre Organisation (NTO), South Africa 349, 365

National Theatre Organisation, Zimbabwe 298–301

National Troupe at the Ezbekia Theatre 30

Native Air Opera 148

Native Air Theatre 148

Nau, Auguste 435

Ndao, Cheikh 91, 125

Ndébéka, Maxime 91, 127

Ndepp 108, 109

Ndui (Plague) 241

Nebuchadnazzar 2

Negro Orpheus 440

Nénékhaly-Camara, Condetto 125

Ng’andu, Mulenga 290

Ng’ombe, James 289

Ngaahika Ndeenda (I will Marry when I Want) 222–3, 224, 225

Ngahyoma, Ngalimecha 240

Ngaoundere, University of 186

Ngema, Mbongeni 321, 357

Ngoassou 10

Ngoma 268, 271–3, 306

Ngoma Players 250

Ngombe 122

Ngome, Victor Epie 184

Ngongo 389

Ngonjera 242

Ngonjera za Ukuta 1 and 2 242

Ngué initiation ritual 129

Ngufor, Emelda 187, 189, 190

Ngugi wa Mirii 222–3, 298

Ngugi wa Thiong’o 219–20, 221–3, 224, 226–7, 249, 257

Nguzo Mama (The Mother Pillar) 243

Niane, Djibril Tansir 91, 125

Nigerian Popular Theatre Alliance 155

Nigerian Theatre: Dynamics of a Movement 8, 9

Nights of a Mystical Beast 154

Njinga, Rainha da União (Njinga, Queen of Unity) 396

Nkashama, Ngandu 127

Nketia, J. H. Kwabena 159

Nkonyeni, Nomhle 353

Nkosi, Lewis 352

Nkrumah Ni . . . Africa Ni! 167

Nkrumah, Kwame 11, 162, 163

Nkuigini, Zacharias 354

Nkweteyim, Patricia 183, 184

No-Good Friday 352

Nokan, Charles 125

None is All Honey 185

Nongogo 352

Northern Rhodesia Drama Association 279

Notre fille ne se mariera pas 127

Nottingham Playhouse 9

Ntshona, Winston 354, 356, 397

Ntubani, Victor 287

Nuba wrestling contests 77, 79

Núcleo de Arte 388

Nurse (Umongikazi) 360

Nusairi, Uthman 83

Nyanfè 105

Nyènajè 105

Nyerere, Julius K. 10, 242, 252

Nyogolon 95

Nyogolon theatre for development group 97, 114

Nyoni, Frowin 244

Nyutho, Edwin 219

Nzinga Mbande 396

Nzonzi, Pascal 123

O Barqueiro (The Boatman) 395

O Círculo de Giz de Bombó (The Bombo Chalk-Circle) 395

O Despertar do Guarda Nocturno (The Awakening of the Night-Watchman) 394

O Elipse do Sol (The Eclipse of the Sun) 395

O Filho de Nzambi (Nzambi’s Child) 392

O Funeral de um Rato (A Mouse’s Funeral) 394

O Império da Laurentinas (The Empire of the Lagers) 387

O Mato (The Bushveld) 387

O Pamfleto (The Pamphlet) 392

O Poder Popular (People’s Power) 396

O Processo (The Trial) 445

Oásis 396

Oba Ko So 149, 150

Oba Waja 150

Oba y Shango (The King and Shango) 442

Obafemi, Olu 147, 154

Obaluaye 153

Obasai (Over Yonder) 177

Obey, André 152

Obyerodhyambo, Hilda Adhiambo 228

Obyerodhyambo, Oby 228

Ochieng-Konyango 224

Odebi el cazador (Odebi the Hunter) 442

Odwira Festival 159

Oedipus Rex 8

Of No Account 366

Oga Na Tief Man 154

Ogali, Ogali Agu 151

Ogboni cult 144

Ogui Players 152

Ogun Festivals 2

Ogunba, Oyin 7

Ogunbiyi, Yemi xiii, 140, 151

Ogunde, Hubert 4, 9, 147, 148–50, 185, 254

Ogunmola, Kola 147, 149–50, 152, 255

Ogunsola, Ishola 147

Ogunyemi, Wale 146, 153

Oh Sô Ministro (Oh, Hon. Minister) 394

Oje 141

Okagbue, Osita xv

Okasha, Abdullah 29

Okava Theatre Trust 295

Okolo, Felix 154, 155

Okun-Okura Masquerade Ensemble 140

Olaiya, Moses 147, 149–50

Old Story Time 167, 434, 438

Olivier-Sampson, Laurinda 305

Olkirkenyi 220

Olorun Esan 8

Oloyede, D. A. 146

Olutoye, H. A. 147

Oluwole, Odunni 3

Oluyimba Lwa Wankoko (Song of the Cock) 257

Omara, Tom 249, 252, 259

Omotoso, Kole xiii, 154, 312

Omtata, Okoiti 224

Omwana Womuntu (The Son of Man) 255

O’Neill, Eugene 346, 394, 443

On joue la comédie 127, 129

Once Bitten Twice Shy 363

Once Upon Four Robbers 154

Once Upon Great Lepers 186

Ongeti, Khaemba 225

Onimole, G. T. 147

Onitsha Market Popular Drama 150

Onsongo, Paul 219

Onwueme, Tess 154

Op Dees Aarde (On this Earth) 365

Opera House (Cape Town) 339

Opera Wonyosi 154

Opet Festival 15

Opoku, A. A. 159

Ore Adisa, Ashale Gege (Pamperer of Prostitutes) 150

Orefo in a Night World 438

Orekelewa, Aya Ninalowo 8

Organisation of African Unity 11

Ori Olokun Theatre (University of Ife) 152

Orlando Boy’s Club dramatic society 348

Orphan do not Glance 163

Orun Mooru (Heaven is Heated) 150

Os Amores de Krilólu (Krilólu’s Loves) 386

Os Noivos Ou Conferência Dramática sobre o Lobolo (Bride and Bridegroom, or A Dramatic Discourse on Bride-Money) 389

Osborne, John 199

Osiris Passion Play 14

Osodo, Felix 220

Osofisan, Femi 4, 153–4, 155, 167

Osu Youngsters’ Society 165

Ouko, Fred Owuor 228

Ouko, Otumba 220

Our Cousin 185

Our Husband Has Gone Mad Again 183

Outers 357

Owusu, Martin 166

Oyekunle, Segun 154

Oyono-Mbia, Guillaume 105, 127

Ozidi Saga 140

Ozila 109

P’Bitek, Okot 242, 247–8, 250, 255, 256, 263

Pa Atungshiri 186

Pa Majiga 291

Pacesetters 168

Paimo, Lere 147

Palace Productions Association 185, 186

Palhota Maticada (Walled-up Hut) 387

Pambo (Ornament) 240

Pamodzi Cultural Dance Troupe (Lusaka) 283

Pampana Communications Drama Company 178, 179

Panafest (Ghana) 166, 168

Para Sayuni (Zion) 254

Parapanda Arts 243–4

Parry, Sefton 338–9

Parry’s Theatre Royal 335

Paton, Alan 352

Pátria (Nation) 392

Paukwa Theatre Group 242, 243

Paul et Virginie 408

Paul, Neef 335

Peace and Forgive 360

Pelen, Philippe 418, 419, 421

Penelope 146

People Are Living There 321

People of the Cave (Ahl el Kaf) 30

People’s Experimental Theatres (PET) 359

Peoples Educational Theatre 295

Pepetela 391, 392, 395, 396

Performance Studio Workshop (PSW) 155, 168

petits chanteurs et danseurs 116

Philander, Frederick 302

Phillips, Anton 167

Phillips, Caryl 438

Phiri (Stimela), Ray 326

Phiri 355

Phiri, Masautso 286, 291

Phoenix Players (Dorkay House) 352, 355

Phoenix Theatre (Kenya) 229

Phoenix, The (Lagos) 145

Phutulogo Theatre 305

Pierce, Daniel 296

Pietermaritzburg, University of 365

Pillay, Kriben 366

Piñera, Virgilio 442

Pinero 152

Pinter, Harold 152

Pirandello 31, 444

Pitch Black Follies 347

Plaatje, Solomon 280

Platform 259, 302

Platform Five 300

Plato 8

Plautus 8

Players of the Dawn (Ibadan) 152

Playland 354

Pliya, Jean 105, 125, 127

Pocomania 436

PODRASO (Poetry and Drama Society), Swaziland 288

Poho, Dan 351

Politicos 127

Pomare, Raul 441

Pompelyongo 290

Porquet, Niangoran 129

Porquet, Niangoret 91

Potopotoh 190

Praga (Prague) 445

Preachers Theatre 178

Prehistoric Man in Genesis 163

Priestley, J. B. 199

Primary Schools Drama Festival (Kenya) 224–6

Protestant Mission of West Africa 144

Proud to be Dark-skinned (Somdaka) 321

Pula 360

Pungwe 297

Purkey, Malcolm 359

Pwagu na Pwaguzi 241

Qabula, Alfred 364

Qadir, Hamadnallah Abdul 81, 82

Qadiriya order 79

qene poetry 193

qisa 42

Qonda (Vigiliantes) 364

Quartet 445

Qui a mangé Madame d’Avoine Bergotha 127

Rabecindade de Família 401

Racine 30

Radio France Internationale Théâtre 124

Raditladi, Leetsile 280

Radwan, Fat’hi 31

Rahman, AlFaki Abdur 81

Rakotoson, Michèle 99, 105, 124, 127, 129

Ramazin, Professor and Mrs 82

Rametsi, Emmanuel 294

Randlords and Rotgut 358

Rattray, R. S. 163

rawi 41

Rayne, Leonard 338, 339–40

Reda Folklore Troupe 32

Reda, Aly 32

Reda, Mahmoud 32

Redemption 229

Redemption Song 438

Rederijkerskamers 335–6

Redham, Tom 436

Reetsenang Community Theatres 294

Rehearsal Room (Dorkay House) 351, 352

Rehoboth College of the Arts 304

Rei de Obó (King of Obó) 403

Renga Moi 260

Requiem for the Last Kaiser 186

Requiem por Yarini (Requiem for Yarini) 442

Reth Investiture 77, 78

Retributive Justice 185

Rex, Frederick 334

Rhone, Trevor 167, 431, 434, 438, 446

Ricard, Alain 110, 111

Riefenstahl, Leni 79

Risalat al-Ghufran 39

Rizq, Hamdy 32

Roaming Jamaicans 436

Roan Antelope Drama and Opera Society 291

Robert, Shaaban 244

Rocado Zulu theatre 123, 129

Rocco 335

Roebuck, Disney 338–9

Roeland Street Theatre (Cape Town) 338

Rogers, Wilton 435

Romagnola 92

Romana Worq Kasahun 198

romarias 399

Romeo and Juliet 248, 365

Romeo ek so Ziliet 419

Ronko Theatre 178

Rostain, Michel 123

Rotimi, Ola 8, 140, 146, 151–3, 183, 185

Routh, Guy 351

Royal Theatre of Varieties (Johannesburg) 339

Rubadiri, David 249, 259

Ruby 343

Ruganda, John 221, 252, 259, 261, 287

Rugyendo, Mukotani (John) 240, 261

Ruman, Mikhail 31

Rural Sanitation Play 293

Rushdie, Fatma 30

Rushdie, Rashad 31

Rwangyezi, Stephen 263

Saad, Siti Binti 238, 244

Sacrifice of Kreli 355

Saddiki, Tayeb 50

Saeed, AlFadil 83

Saint-Pierre, Bernardin de 408

Saisons Arabes 63

Sala, Baba 185, 255

Salah al-Din 63

Salem, Ali 31

Salifou, André 125

Salisawi Dawit (King David) 198

Salisbury Repertory Players (REPS) 278

Salmawy, Mohamed 34

Samariya youth associations 113

Samaru (community theatre) 154

Samory 119

San Gloria 436

Sang’Amin, Kapalanga 112, 116

Sankoh, Abu Bakarr 178

Sannu, Yacoub 28

Sansoa 126

São Lourenço 402

Sarafina 2 357

Sarafina 263, 357

Sarhan, Samir 34

Sassine, William 127

Schijn Bedriegt (Apparent Betrayal) 335

Schlesinger, Williams 338, 340

School is Out 438

Schools Drama Competition (Tanzania) 237

Schools Drama Festival (Malawi) 288

Schoonhover, Gerrit 302

Schwartz, E. 239

Score Me the Ages 357

Scott, Dennis 431, 433, 438, 445, 446<

Voorwoord

A History of Theatre in Africa
Cambridge University Press
0521808138 - A History of Theatre in Africa - Edited by - Martin Banham
Frontmatter/Prelims
More information


A History of Theatre in Africa




This book aims to offer a broad history of theatre in Africa, covering the entire continent. The roots of African theatre are ancient and complex and lie in areas of community festival, seasonal rhythm and religious ritual, as well as in the work of popular entertainers and storytellers. Since the 1950s, in a movement that has paralleled the political emancipation of so much of the continent, there has also grown a theatre that comments back from the colonized world to the world of the colonists and explores its own cultural, political and linguistic identity. A History of Theatre in Africa offers a comprehensive yet accessible account of this long and varied chronicle and is written by a team of scholars in the field. Chapters include an examination of the concepts of ‘history’ and ‘theatre’ in Africa; North Africa; Francophone theatre; Anglophone West Africa; East Africa; Southern Africa; Lusophone African theatre; Mauritius and Réunion; and the African Diaspora.

MARTIN BANHAM is Emeritus Professor of Drama and Theatre Studies at the School of English, University of Leeds. His publications include African Theatre Today (1976), The Cambridge Guide to African and Caribbean Theatre (edited with Errol Hill and George Woodyard, 1994) and The Cambridge Guide to World Theatre (1988, and with subsequent editions as The Cambridge Guide to Theatre). He has written extensively on African Theatre in international journals and is co-editor with James Gibbs and Femi Osofisan of the annual journal, African Theatre.





A HISTORY OF
Theatre in Africa



Edited by Martin Banham





PUBLISHED BY THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE
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CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
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© Cambridge University Press 2004

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First published 2004

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

Typeface Columbus 10.75/13.75 pt.      System LATEX 2e      [TB]

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication data
A history of theatre in Africa / edited by Martin Banham.
      p.      cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0 521 80813 8
1. Theatre – Africa – History. 2. Performing arts – Africa – History.
1. Banham, Martin.
PN 2969.H57 2003
792′.096 – dc21 2003055280

ISBN 0 521 80813 8 hardback





To the memory of Geoffrey Axworthy, Dele Charley, Peter Lwanga, John Masanja, Rose Mbowa, Wale Ogunyemi, Sonny Oti, Ola Rotimi: fine friends, great artists, with the ancestors.





Contents




Notes on contributors    page ix
Acknowledgements    xiii
Preface    xv
 
1 Concepts of history and theatre in Africa    1
Kole Omotoso
 
2 North Africa    13
Egypt    13
Ahmed Zaki
Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia    37
Kamal Salhi
Sudan    77
Khalid AlMubarak Mustafa
 
3 Francophone Africa south of the Sahara    85
John Conteh-Morgan
 
4 Anglophone West Africa    138
Nigeria    138
Dapo Adelugba and Olu Obafemi, with additional material
by Sola Adeyemi
Ghana    159
James Gibbs
Sierra Leone    171
Mohamed Sheriff
A note on recent Anglophone Cameroonian theatre    181
Asheri Kilo
 
5 East Africa    192
Ethiopia and Eritrea    192
Jane Plastow
Kenya    206
Ciarunji Chesaina and Evan Mwangi
Tanzania    233
Amandina Lihamba
Uganda    247
Eckhard Breitinger
 
6 Southern Africa    265
David Kerr, with Stephen Chifunyise
 
7 South Africa    312
Yvette Hutchison
 
8 Theatre in Portuguese-speaking African countries    380
Luís R. Mitras
 
9 Mauritius and Réunion    405
Roshni Mooneeram
 
10 Surviving the crossing: theatre in the African Diaspora    430
Osita Okagbue
 
Index    448




Contributors




DAPO ADELUGBA is Professor of Theatre Studies at the University of Ibadan. He has written widely on Nigerian theatre and is also extremely active as a director, having staged work by such leading Nigerian playwrights as Wale Ogunyemi and J. P. Clark in Nigeria and the UK.

SOLA ADEYEMI studied theatre arts at the University of Ibadan and then worked as a postgraduate on a comparative study of Yoruba and Zulu cultural performances at the University of Natal, South Africa. He is currently living in London and is completing his doctorate on a postcolonial study of the performances of Femi Osofisan.

ECKHARD BREITINGER is Professor of African Studies at Bayreuth University. He has held visiting professorships in several African universities, in Nigeria, Cameroon, Kenya and, substantially, Uganda. He is the editor and publisher of Bayreuth African Studies, a distinguished series concerned with African arts and culture that has published over fifty titles. Breitinger’s contribution to the series includes editing Theatre and Performance in Africa (1994) and, with Yvette Hutchison, History and Theatre in Africa (2000).

CIARUNJI CHESAINA is a professor in the Department of Literature, University of Nairobi. She spent a considerable period as the High Commissioner for Kenya in the Republic of South Africa.

JOHN CONTEH-MORGAN, formerly of Fourah Bay College, University of Sierra Leone, is currently Associate Professor of French and Francophone Studies at Ohio State University and editor of Research in African Literatures. His publications include Drama and Theatre in Francophone Africa (Cambridge, 1994) and he was a major contributor to The Cambridge Guide to Theatre (Cambridge, 1995) and The Routledge Encyclopedia of African Writers (London, 2002). His translation of Paulin Hountondji’s The Struggle for Meaning: Reflections on Philosophy, Culture and Democracy in Africa was published by Ohio University Press in 2002.

JAMES GIBBS has taught at the Universities of Ghana, Malawi, Ibadan and Liège and is currently a senior lecturer at the University of the West of England, Bristol. He has published widely on African literature (including Wole Soyinka, London, 1986) and is co-editor, with Martin Banham and Femi Osofisan, of the annual journal, African Theatre.

YVETTE HUTCHISON is a South African teaching at King Alfred’s College, Winchester. She is assistant editor of the South African Theatre Journal. Her doctorate was on the relationship between theatre, myth and history in post-1960s Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa.

DAVID KERR has taught at the Universities of Botswana and Malawi and at King Alfred’s College, Winchester. He is currently Professor of Theatre Studies at the University of Malawi. His extensive writings on African theatre include African Popular Theatre (London, 1995) and Dance, Media Entertainment and Popular Theatre in South-East Africa (Bayreuth, 1998). He was guest editor of the fourth issue of the annual journal African Theatre (African Theatre: Southern Africa, Oxford, 2004).

ASHERI KILO is Senior Lecturer in Theatre Arts at the University of Buea, Cameroon, and is the co-ordinator of the drama and theatre arts programmes. She is a director of the university’s theatre troupe.

AMANDINA LIHAMBA is Professor in the Department of Fine and Performing Arts at the University of Dar Es Salaam. She is also a performer, director and playwright and has worked in theatre for development within and outside Africa.

LUÍS R. MITRAS is a South African at present based in Lisbon. He has published on Lusophone literatures and has translated novels, short stories and poetry from Portuguese and Spanish. He is adjunct associate professor at the European Division of the University of Maryland.

ROSHNI MOONEERAM lectures in English linguistics at the University of Central England, Birmingham. Her doctoral thesis from the University of Leeds discussed the sociolinguistics and stylistics of the Creole language of Mauritius. She has contributed to Stanley Wells and Sarah Stanton’s Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare on Stage (Cambridge, 2002), to the annual journal African Theatre (African Theatre in Development, Oxford, 1999) and to Kunapipi.

KHALID ALMUBARAK MUSTAFA graduated from the University of Khartoum, where he was chairperson of the Students Union. His doctorate was from the University of Bristol. He taught drama at the Universities of Khartoum and Kuwait, and was Dean of the Higher Institute of Music and Drama (Sudan) and Director of Khartoum University Press. His publications include Arabic Drama: A Critical Introduction (Khartoum, 1986), Turabi’s Islamist Venture (Cairo, 2001), Tilk AnNazra (1978) – a collection of plays in classical Arabic – and a translation into Arabic of two volumes of British documents about Sudan (Omdurman, 2002). He is a published and performed playwright in both Arabic and English, and is a columnist and critic for AlRayAlAm (Sudan) and AlHayat (London).

EVAN MWANGI teaches literature at the University of Nairobi and at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio. He has co-edited (with Opiyo Mumma and Christopher Odhiambo) Orientations of Drama, Theatre and Culture: Cultural Identity and Community Development (Nairobi, 1998) and Emerging Patterns for a Third Millennium: Drama/Theatre at the Equator Crossroads (with Tobias Otieno and Opiyo Mumma; Nairobi, 1999).

OLU OBAFEMI is Professor of English at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria, and a playwright, theatre director and critic. His critical works include a major study entitled Contemporary Nigerian Theatre (Bayreuth, 1996). He is one of Nigeria’s leading radical dramatists, with plays such as Nights of a Mystical Beast (1986), Suicide Syndrome (1988) and Naira has no Gender (1993). He is also a novelist and a poet, and has written on social and political issues facing Nigeria today. He has been a regular columnist in leading Nigerian newspapers since 1981.

OSITA OKAGBUE is Lecturer in Drama and Theatre Arts at Goldsmiths College, University of London. His essays on aspects of African and Caribbean theatre have appeared in Contemporary Dramatists, Contemporary American Dramatists, New Literatures Review, African Writers, Who’s Who in Contemporary World Theatre, Meditations on African Literature, South African Theatre Journal, Theatre Research International, Culture and Identity, The Continuum Companion to Twentieth-century Theatre, Contemporary Theatre Review and Okike.

KOLE OMOTOSO is a Nigerian scholar who moved to South Africa in 1992. He is a professor in the Drama Department at the University of Stellenbosch and a research professor at the Centre for Theatre and Performance Studies, also at Stellenbosch. His publications include work on contemporary Arabic theatre and the theatre of the English-speaking Caribbean. A present research interest is a comparative study of Yoruba travelling theatre and Afrikaans travelling theatre.

JANE PLASTOW is Deputy Director of the Workshop Theatre and Director of the Centre for African Studies, both at the University of Leeds. She has published widely on African theatre and theatre for development, including African Theatre and Politics (Amsterdam, 1996), Contemporary African Plays (edited with Martin Banham; London, 1999) and – as guest editor – the third volume of the annual journal African Theatre, African Theatre: Women (Oxford, 2002).

KAMAL SALHI is Senior Lecturer in French and Francophone Studies at the School of Modern Languages and Cultures, University of Leeds, and Deputy Director of the Leeds University Centre for African Studies. His publications include The Politics and Aesthetics of Kateb Yacine (Lampeter, 1999) and, as editor, African Theatre for Development: Art for Self-Determination (Exeter, 1998). He is the founder and editor of the International Journal of Francophone Studies.

MOHAMED SHERIFF is a leading Sierra Leonian novelist, playwright and director. Co-founder (with Oumarr Farouk Sesay) of Pampana Communications Drama Company, he writes, directs and produces plays for radio, television and community theatre. His play Just Me and Mama won a prize in the BBC African Performance Radio Playwriting Competition in 1999 and was broadcast several times, on the BBC African and World Services. His theatre for development plays have been commissioned by, amongst others, UNICEF, UNDP, the National Commission for Democracy and Human Rights, and the Anti-Corruption Commission.

AHMED ZAKI is President of ITI Egypt and Professor of Drama at the Academy of Dramatic Arts, Cairo. He is a former Under-Secretary of Culture and Head of the Drama Sector. A director of over sixty plays, he was honoured at the Cairo International Festival for Experimental Theatre in 1992 for his contribution to theatre. He has written extensively on theatre and was the regional co-ordinator of volume IV of The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre (1999).





Acknowledgements




This volume was the initiative of Dr Victoria Cooper at Cambridge University Press and throughout its preparation she has offered great and generous support and shrewd (and helpfully pragmatic!) guidance. Jackie Warren, the production editor at the Press, and the copyeditor, Hilary Hammond, have both, with great professionalism and friendliness, smoothed a multitude of rough edges and saved me from many errors. There is a Sudanese proverb that says that he who shoots an arrow upwards into the sky should have his head protected – a protective role they have both performed!

   I owe a considerable and special debt of gratitude to Judith Greenwood, who, in addition to undertaking the major task of creating the index, throughout the process of commissioning and editing read authors’ manuscripts and discussed them with me, raising important queries, making constructive suggestions and generally offering invaluable intellectual support and personal encouragement. The final product owes much to her.

   Lastly, to the individual contributors – scholars, practitioners, old and new friends and colleagues – my great thanks for their work and dedication to the project. They are the true dancers in the rich forest of African theatre.





Preface




To attempt a history of theatre in Africa is a daunting task. At the outset we have to decide what we mean by Africa, by theatre, and by history in this context. Resolving the first of these was relatively simple – a choice between a sub-Saharan Africa or the total continent including the Maghreb and Egypt. Don Rubin, in the volumes of The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre on Africa and the Arab World (1997 and 1999 respectively), decided to separate north Africa from Africa south of the Sahara, on the entirely persuasive grounds that the Arab world is a cultural unity. I made the same judgement in The Cambridge Guide to African and Caribbean Theatre (1994) and in the earlier African Theatre Today (London, 1976). On the other hand, as many of the contributors to this volume acknowledge and illustrate, historically there has been immense cultural interchange between all parts of the continent, and particularly from the Arab world into East and West Africa, and this is often most vividly identified and retained in aspects of performance. Hence my decision to seek to cover the whole continent, though accepting that on such a vast scale there are as many disconnections as there are connections. The second term, theatre, is more elusive and presents a greater problem. The variety of performance forms in African societies is immense, ranging from dance to storytelling, masquerade to communal festival, with a vibrant and generally more recent ‘literary’ and developmental theatre. All have to be celebrated and acknowledged in a ‘history’ (which I will come back to). Kole Omotoso, in his introductory chapter to this volume, helps us determine the interaction of various kinds of performance in creating theatre in African societies, and many other contributors return to this question. But, as the Nigerian scholar Yemi Ogunbiyi implies at the beginning of his Drama and Theatre in Nigeria: A Critical Source Book (Lagos, 1981), it is legitimate, whilst acknowledging the roots of religious ritual, festival and so forth, to refer to ‘a robust theatrical tradition’. In this volume the word theatre is used in a way that embraces a wide range of aspects of performance – in truth we use it in its largest and most inclusive sense. Finally, history. For a continent that can in some parts offer 5,000 years of record and documentation (as Ahmed Zaki observes of Egypt) and in others articulate its past significantly through oral narration, myth and legend, history cannot be one thing. A continent that has been invaded and colonised, and subject to the imposition of alien languages and governments, cannot have a convenient linear history. We are often asking ‘Whose history?’; in South Africa, for instance, there are legitimate separate performance histories of both indigenous and settler cultures. But the apparent difficulty of finding a coherent pattern of history of African performance is also an opportunity to assert its defining and uniting quality – a sense of function. The roots of African theatre in ritual, seasonal rhythms, religion and communal communication are roots common to world theatre, but whereas it may be argued that European theatre, for instance, is at so great a distance from its functional roots as to be almost unaware of them, African theatre – even at the beginning of the twenty-first century – remains directly and immediately related to them. The contemporary literary playwright is likely to be drawing upon exactly the same performance imperative as the storyteller or the masquerade; the performer is still the necessary chronicler of time and experience. The late Joel Adedeji, in a posthumous essay entitled ‘African Theatre: The Issue of an Historical Approach’ (in D. Layiwola, ed., Rethinking African Arts and Culture, Cape Town, 2000), points to the difficulties of ‘writing a history of an African art phenomenon which originates and proceeds from Oral Tradition, Oral History and what is now generally referred to as Oral Literature’. He points the historian again to ‘[T]he root elements of African theatre . . . the mimetic masks, the chant/song and the dance’, and suggests that in order for him/her to be properly critical the methodology he/she uses may have to move beyond the recording of facts: ‘it may be necessary to recreate the circumstances in which the work first manifested itself and was then developed’. Practical research has indeed informed many of the contributors to this volume.

   The contributors to this volume are mainly scholars and theatre practitioners who are indigenous to the areas of Africa they are discussing or who have significant experience within the region. My invitation to each of them was to write not to a determined framework of theatre history but from their own insights and priorities. There are inevitably moments of overlap; old colonial borders may, for instance, give a Lusophone or a Francophone focus to specific chapters, but cultural communities and traditions subvert artificial boundaries. The volume is organised broadly on regional and linguistic terms. This is often more a matter of convenience (and access for the reader) than of absolute logic: indeed, this very act of organisation may confront us again with the question ‘Whose history?’ Conscious that the theatre and performance of Africa has spread well beyond the continent, I have included one chapter, from Osita Okagbue, on aspects of the diaspora. African-American theatre is, however, not included, as this would properly demand a study in its own terms.

   My hope is that the reader will be reminded of the extraordinary complexity of African performance culture, of its richness, agelessness and beauty; that he or she will see much that offers coherence and continuity, even within diversity, on the vast stage of Africa.

   Martin Banham





© Cambridge University Press

Quote

Review of the hardback: '… we are faced with a truly multifaceted picture of theatre in Africa … The variety of approaches makes for compelling reading, providing us with a plethora of detail … deserves a warm welcome as an addition to the study of African theatre, and will certainly set the standard for African theatre histories in the years to come. It is a rich and valuable supplement to available guides and encyclopaedias, and sets new directions in which research in this field could be moving.' Wasafiri

Inhoudsopgave

Preface Martin Banham; 1. Concepts of history and theatre in Africa Kole Omotoso; 2. North Africa: (a) Egypt Ahmed Zaki; (b) Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia Kamal Salhi; (c) Sudan Khalid AlMubarak Mustafa; 3. Francophone Africa south of the Sahara John Conteh-Morgan; 4. Anglophone West Africa: (a) Nigeria Dapo Adelugba and Olu Obafemi, additional material by Sola Adeyemi; (b) Ghana James Gibbs; (c) Sierra Leone Mohamed Sheriff; (d) A note on recent Anglophone Cameroonian theatre Asheri Kilo; 5. East Africa: (a) Ethiopia and Eritrea Jane Plastow; (b) Kenya Ciarunji Chesaina and Evan Mwangi; (c) Tanzania Amandina Lihamba; (d) Uganda Eckhard Breitinger; 6. Southern Africa David Kerr; 7. South Africa Yvette Hutchison; 8. Theatre in Portuguese speaking African countries Luis Mitras; 9. Mauritius and Réunion Roshni Mooneeram; 10. Surviving the crossing: theatre in the African diaspora Osita Okagbue.

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