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Cambridge Companion To Haydn

Cambridge Companion To Haydn - Clark, Caryl Leslie (EDT) - ISBN: 9780521833479
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Beschrijving

Introduces the reader to Haydn's many symphonies, chamber works, sacred compositions and operas, situating the composer's vast repertory in the context of late eighteenth century musical life and different interpretive contexts from his own day to our own. The environments in which Haydn lived and worked - from Vienna and the Eszterházy courts of Eisenstadt and Eszterháza in eastern Austria and western Hungary respectively to cosmopolitan London - are described, as are the changing attitudes towards his music and its performance, including live and recorded performances.

Details

Titel: Cambridge Companion To Haydn
auteur: Clark, Caryl Leslie (EDT)
Mediatype: Boek
Bindwijze: Gebonden
Taal: Engels
Aantal pagina's: 338
Uitgever: Cambridge University Press
Plaats van publicatie: 03
NUR: Muziekinstrumenten en –techniek
Editor: Clark, Caryl
Afmetingen: 183 x 254 x 22
Gewicht: 736 gr
ISBN/ISBN13: 0521833477
ISBN/ISBN13: 9780521833479
Intern nummer: 2217851
Volume: 1

Biografie (woord)

Caryl Clark is Associate Professor of Music at the University of Toronto and Visual and Performing Arts at University of Toronto at Scarborough. Her publications about Haydn's operas appear in The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, Studies in Music, Current Musicology, The Haydn Yearbook, and Early Music. She is co-editor of three special opera issues of The University of Opera Quarterly: Voices of Opera (1998); Opera and Interdisciplinarity (2003); and Opera and Interdisciplinarity II (2005).

Extra informatie

The Cambridge Companion to
Cambridge University Press
0521833477 - The Cambridge Companion to Haydn - by Caryl Clark
Index



Index




Adler, Guido 237

Albrechtsberger, J. A. 112

Albrechtsberger, Johann Georg 35, 47–48

Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek 133

Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung 148, 231, 233

Anfossi, Pasquale 27, 48, 186, 187

Apponyi, Count Anton Georg 23, 28, 114

Ariosto, Ludovico 191

Arnold, Matthew 242

Arnold, Dr. Samuel 40, 167

Artaria 3–4, 6, 11, 12, 27, 38, 40, 51, 55, 129, 130, 132, 135, 165, 169, 193, 212, 264n.7, 265n.35

Ascher, Anna 172

Astaritta, Gennaro 27

audiences 3, 4–5, 42, 76, 95, 96, 98, 100

   composing for different audiences 3, 4, 5–6, 13–14, 15, 40–41, 42, 95, 96, 106, 107, 108, 126, 127, 198, 210, 212

   amateurs (Liebhaber) 4, 170

   connoisseurs (Kenner) 4–5, 287n.36

Auenbrugger, Katharina and Marianna 12, 129, 219

authenticity, see performance practice

Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel 3, 4, 35, 37, 42, 46, 131, 173, 220, 243

   Versuch (Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments) 46, 128, 208

Bach, Johann Christian 167, 243

Bach, Johann Sebastian 54, 87, 104, 136, 138, 175, 227, 241

Badini, Carlo Francesco 191, 195

Bartoli, Cecilia 198, 284n.55

baryton 42, 100

Baumgartner (concierge) 23

Becher, Alfred Julius 227

Beecham, Sir Thomas 251, 254–55

Beethoven, Ludwig van 3, 38, 40, 45, 55–57, 74–75, 84, 136, 137, 153, 165, 173, 240, 243, 245, 281n.14

   image xi

   posthumous reputation 55, 228, 231, 232, 233, 236, 237

   symphonic style 98, 99

WORKS

   Leonore (Fidelio) 56

   Mass in C 55, 56

   Missa Solemnis 148

   “Moonlight” sonata 133

   quartets 125; Op. 59 56

   Sonatas Op. 2 54

   String quintet Op. 29 55

   Symphony no. 1 53, 56, 234

   Symphony no. 2 56, 155

   Symphony no. 3, “Eroica” 56, 154

   Symphony no. 5 154

   Symphony no. 6, “Pastoral” 160

   Symphony no. 9 158

Bellini, Vincenzo 169

Benda, Georg 170

Benjamin, Walter 261

Bergson, Henri 271n.5

Berkeley, George 83

Berlin critics, see North German critics

Berliner allgemeine musikalishce Zeitung 231

Berlioz, Hector 41, 227, 234

Bernstein, Leonard 255

Bianchi, Francesco 34

Blake, William 241, 247

Bland, John 172

Bloom, Harold 240

Bon, Girolamo 178

Bonds, Mark Evan 74

Born, Ignaz von 96, 98, 107

Bossler, Heinrich Philipp 129, 216, 287n.35

Botstein, Leon 10, 73, 74, 226, 235

Botstiber, Hugo 235

Brahms, Johannes 242

Breitkopf & Härtel 100, 129, 137, 147, 164, 172–73, 198, 220

Brendel, Franz 229, 230, 233, 234–35

Broadwood, John 134, 167; fortepiano 204

Brown, A. Peter 11, 126, 128, 220

Brown, Marshall 74

Brüggen, Frans 256

Bulöw, Hans von 229, 233

Burgenland, map of 20

   see also Eisenstadt and Eszterháza

Burney, Charles 53, 56, 167

Butt, John 252

capriccio 264n.2

Carpani, Giuseppe 8, 10, 56, 97, 120

Chevardière, La 9

Chua, Daniel 74

Cimarosa, Domenico 48, 189, 195

Clementi, Muzio 136, 152, 212, 285n.11

Collin, Heinrich 56

Coltellini, Marco 182

Concert de la Loge Olympique 97, 107, 255–59

concertante style 5–6, 171, 189

Cramer, Johann Baptist 54

Crotch, William 231

Da Ponte, Lorenzo 192

Dampierre, Marquis de 283n.37

Debuisson, Peter Ulric 186

delikatesse 39–40

Dengraf, Joseph 89

Dies, Albert Christoph 8, 10, 15, 16, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 49, 95, 96, 103, 105, 116, 152

Dilettantes, see audiences: amateurs

Dittersdorf, Carl 7, 11, 28, 47–48, 49–50, 95, 97

   operas 49, 184, 185

Doblinger Verlag 251

domesticity and domestic music-making 13, 115, 130–31, 166–67, 170, 171, 238

Doráti, Antal 198, 252, 254, 259

Dreyfus, Laurence 259

Dryden, John 248

Dussek, Jan Ladislav (Johann Ludwig) 285n.4, 285n.11

Eberl, Anton 54

Eliot, T. S. 242

Eisenstadt xi, 19–20, 24–25, 97, 102, 139, 140, 142, 177, 199

   Eisenstadt to Eszterháza 49

   Eisenstadt to Vienna 19, 49

   Esterházy palace 19–20, 253

   Esterházy orchestra at 97, 105, 114

empfindsamer style 128, 164

Enlightenment 10, 27, 30, 54, 73–74, 77, 80, 81, 83, 84–86, 91, 96, 98, 99, 151–53, 158, 188, 244

Erdödy, Count Joseph 114

Erdödy, Countess Marie Therese 22, 178

Esterházy, Count Johann Baptist 53

Esterházy, Prince Anton 22, 178

Esterházy, Prince Paul I 19

Esterházy, Prince Paul Anton 5, 19, 103, 179

   patron 6, 7

   education 25

Esterházy, Prince Nicolaus 19, 22, 26, 33, 36, 96, 99, 100, 105, 139, 185, 187, 190, 268n.42

   death 7, 8, 107, 195

   as dedicatee 114, 128, 209–10, 212, 213–20

   education 25, 188

   nameday 143, 188, 191

   and opera 48, 177, 184

   as patron 6

   taste 181, 284n.44

Esterházy, Prince Nicolaus II 23, 39, 48

Esterházy, Princess Marie Hermenegild 130, 135, 144–45, 216–19

Eszterháza xi, 97

   culture 25–26

   economic climate 23–24

   environs of 19, 20, 24–26, 266n.6

   Eszterháza to Eisenstadt 49

   Eszterháza to Vienna 19, 22

   isolation 24

   see also Haydn: isolated state

   jurisdiction 18–20

   map 20

   see also Burgenland

   marionette opera at 177, 178, 188, 282n.10

   opera at 48–49, 177–78, 182, 184–85, 198

   orchestra at 9, 26, 102, 106–7, 187, 257, 258

   theater at 12, 179, 188, 189, 282n.8, 282n.9, 283n.28

Este, Beatrice d’ 267n.18

European Magazine and London Review 24

exoticism 77–79, 80–86, 89–92, 183–84, 185

fantasia, see capriccio

Feder, Georg 281n.1, 287n.35

Ferdinand, Archduke 183, 267n.18

Ferdinand IV, King of Naples 101

Fétis, François-Joseph 231

Finscher, Ludwig 115

Fischer, Adam 253, 258, 259

Flimm, Jürgen 284n.54

folk music 33, 42, 78, 79, 124

Forster, William 108

   Forster and Bland 129, 130, 286n.23

Frederick the Great 46

Friedrich Wilhelm II, King of Prussia 114

Freemasonry 27, 80, 107

Friberth, Carl 165, 178, 183, 282n.7

Friebert, Joseph 150

Fürnberg, Baron Carl Joseph von 6, 112, 127

Fux, Johann Joseph

   Gradus ad parnassum 84

Galuppi, Baldassare 34

Garrett, James xi

Gassmann, Florian Leopold 48, 102, 185, 283n.26

Gazzaniga, Giuseppe 27

Gates-Coon, Rebecca 18

gelehrte Oesterreich, Das 6, 10, 17

Gellert, Christian Fürchtegott 50, 80, 95, 96, 173, 174, 281n.32, 287n.30

Genzinger, Josepha von 171, 222

Genzinger, Marianne [Maria Anna] von 5, 17, 23–24, 28–29, 32, 37, 39, 132, 134, 167, 171, 214–15, 221–23, 287n.36

Gerber, Ernst Ludwig 42, 53, 227, 228

Gerlischek, Maria Anna 221

Gesellschaft der Associirten 150, 151

Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde 290n.2

Gesualdo, Carlo 87

Giotto 10

Gluck, Christoph W. xi, 5, 45, 46, 48, 78, 81, 82, 103, 195, 198

   Alceste 284n.50

   La rencontre imprévue 183

   Orfeo ed Euridice 184, 190, 198, 282n.23

Goberman, Max 251, 259

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von 86, 106, 119

Goldoni, Carlo 31, 77, 79, 179, 181, 184, 185

Goodman, Roy 253, 256–57

Gottschald, Ernst 233

Greiner, Franz Sales von 27, 96, 107, 165

Griesinger, Georg August 4, 8, 10, 15–16, 30, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 43, 44, 45, 46, 49, 54, 57, 80, 95, 96, 98, 101, 116, 152, 176, 264n.9, 282n.4

Guglielmi, Pietro Alessandro 48, 191

Gypsy Rondo, see Haydn, Piano Trio Hob. XV: 25

Gypsy style 78, 84–85, 89–91, 124, 276n.33

Gyrowetz, Adalbert 52, 53, 54, 56

Habsburgs 23, 25, 47, 127, 139, 147

Hamilton, Lady Emma 172

Handel, Georg Frideric 33, 54, 155, 191

Hanslick, Eduard 95, 228, 232–33, 235–36

Hardy, Thomas xi

Harnoncourt, Nikolaus 198, 256

Harlow, Alvin F. 22

Harrison, Bernard 126

Härtel, Gottfried Christoph 38

Hasse, Johann Adolf 45

Haugwitz, Count Friedrich Wilhelm 101

Hausmusik, see domesticity and domestic music-making

Haydn, Joseph

   accompaniment, observations about 34–35

   aesthetics 30, 31–44

   autobiographical sketch 10–12, 17

   Beethoven and 55–56, 74–75, 98, 99, 100, 243, 250, 253, 254

   biographies, see Carpani, Giuseppe; Dies, Albert Christoph; and Griesinger, Georg August

   career 6–7, 27, 51

   character and personality 7–9, 30–31, 34, 45

   coherent style 37–38

   composing, conditions for 32, 36–37

   as conductor 256

   and contemporaries 46, 47–57, 102, 127, 128, 243

   contracts 26, 49, 97, 102, 106, 129, 142, 179

   criticism of 30, 152

   see also North German critics

   criticism of vocal practice 34

   early Viennese employment 101–2, 176

   education 10, 31, 176, 281–82n.3

   fame and esteem 29, 30–31, 45, 50, 53–54, 75, 80, 109, 150, 152

   genius 43–44, 244

   isolated state 23, 28–29, 36, 38, 45, 48–49

   keyboard, composing for the 126–37, 168–69, 203–25

   letters 12–13, 14–15, 17–18, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27–29, 32, 35, 36–37, 38, 39, 40, 44, 108, 152, 169, 170, 264n.1, 282n.5

   melody, use of 34–35

   Mozart and 50–51, 52, 54, 74–75, 100, 243, 244–45, 251, 253

   originality 35–37, 43–44, 241, 243

   posthumous reputation of 226–38, 239–48

   press reports about 24

   residences xi 25, 126

   rivals 31

   sacred music 138–49, 238

   social status 28–29

   teaching 37, 55, 84, 127

WORKS

   Hungarian National March, Hob.VIII: 4 91

   Cantatas

     Applausus 8, 9, 40

     Arianna a Naxos 164, 168, 170–72

     Scena di Berenice 168

   Concertos

     cello, Hob. VIIb: 1 101

     cello, Hob. VIIb: 2 101

     concertos of 100–1

     keyboard, Hob. XVIII: 2 82, 83

     keyboard, Hob. XVIII: 11 101

     horn, Hob. VIId: 3 101

     lira organizzate 101

     trumpet, Hob. VIIe: 1 101

   Operas and Singspiele

     Acide 178

     L’anima del filosofo, ossia Orfeo ed Euridice 8, 198

     Armida 130, 177, 193–95, 198, 284n.47

     Die bestrafte Rachbegierde 184

     La canterina 178–79, 180, 198

     La fedeltà premiata 189–91, 193

     Die Feuerbrunst 184

     Der Götterrath 33, 183

     Hexenschabbas 184

     L’incontro improvviso 33, 78, 80–82, 183–84

     L’infedeltà delusa 182–83

     L’isola disabitata/Die wüste Insel 27, 187–89, 198

     Der krumme Teufel 177

     Laurette, see La vera costanza

     La marchesa Nespola 178

     Il mondo della luna 106, 185–86

     Orlando paladino 130, 191–93, 196

     Le pescatrici 181–82

     Philemon und Baucis 182, 183

WORKS

     Lo speziale/Der Apotheker 77, 78–79, 177, 179–81, 198

     La vera costanza 27, 186–87, 195, 198

   Oratorios

     The Creation 15, 33, 37, 38, 39, 41, 52, 53, 56, 91, 150–58, 159, 160, 161, 163, 232

     reception 151–53, 228, 231

     as sublime 153–55

     pastoral in 155–56

     Il ritorno di Tobia 28, 150

     The Seasons 14–15, 33, 34, 38, 39, 91, 151–53, 158–63, 166

     pastoral in 158–63

     reception 152–53, 232, 236

     Seven Last Words of the Saviour on the Cross 5, 15, 108, 150, 232, 275n.1

   Masses 154

     early Masses 141

     Missa Cellensis (1766) 138, 139, 142, 147

     Missa Cellensis (1782) 144

     Missa in angustiis (Nelson Mass) 145, 148

     Missa in honorum BVM 140, 142, 143

     Missa Sancti Bernardi von Offida 145

     Missa Sancti Josephi 140

     Missa Sancti Nicolai 139, 140, 142, 143, 144

     Missa ‘Sunt bona mixta malis’ 142, 143

     Missa brevis Sancti Joannis de Deo 143–44

     Last six masses 144–46

     Creation Mass/Schöpfungsmesse 16, 39, 145, 158

     Mass in Time of War/Missa in tempore belli 16, 30, 145, 148

     Harmoniemesse 145, 146

     Theresienmesse 145, 146

   Sacred music

     Ave Regina 140

     Herst Nachbä 140

     Hymni de Venerabili 139

     Salve Regina 140, 141, 142

     Stabat mater 50, 138, 139, 140, 142–43, 147

     Te Deum 33, 139

   Piano Trios

     Hob. XV: 3–5 130

     Hob. XV: 6–8 130

     Hob. XV: 7 131

     Hob. XV: 9–10 130, 131

     Hob. XV: 11–13 40, 132–33, 134, 137

     Hob. XV: 14 133–34

     Hob. XV: 15–17 131, 133

     Hob. XV: 18 85

     Hob. XV: 18–29, 31 134–37

     Hob. XV: 25 89–91, 136

     Hob. XV: 34 127

     Hob. XV: 35 127

     Hob. XV: 41 127

     Hob. XV: f1 127

   Solo Keyboard works

     Sonata Hob. XVI: 2 in B♭ major 127

     Sonata Hob. XVI: 6 in G major 127, 208

     Sonatas, Hob. XVI: 7–10 127

     Sonatas Hob. XVI: 13–14 127, 222

     Sonatas Hob. XVI: 18–20 14, 127

     Sonata Hob. XVI: 19 in D major 208

     Sonata Hob. XVI: 20 in c minor 128, 225

     Sonatas Hob. XVI: 21–26 128–29, 209–10, 212, 213

     Sonata Hob. XVI: 22 in E major 209, 217–19

     Sonata Hob. XVI: 23 in F major 206–09

     Sonata Hob. XVI: 24 in D major 209

     Sonata Hob. XVI: 26 in A major 211

     Sonatas Hob. XVI: 27–32 210

     Sonatas Hob. XVI: 35–39, 20 13–14, 129, 210, 219

     Sonata Hob. XVI: 36 in c♯ minor 13

     Sonata Hob. XVI: 39 in G major 13, 210–12

     Sonatas Hob. XVI: 40–42 129, 130, 166, 168, 216, 225

     Sonatas Hob. XVI: 40 in G major 217–19

     Sonatas Hob. XVI: 44–46 127, 128

     Sonata Hob. XVI: 46 in A♭ major 208

     Sonata Hob. XVI: 47 in e minor 223

     Sonata Hob. XVI: 48 in C major 132, 134, 223

     Sonata Hob. XVI: 49 in E♭ major 32–33, 132, 133, 215, 219

     Sonata Hob. XVI: 50 in C major 134, 136, 203–06, 212, 225

     Sonata Hob. XVI: 51 in D major 134, 135, 219

     Sonata Hob. XVI: 52 in E♭ major 134, 136, 212, 213, 225

     lost sonatas 127

     Capriccio Hob. XVII: 1 in G major 4, 128, 287n.46

     Fantasia Hob. XVII: 4 in C major 4, 132

     Variations Hob. XVII: 6 in f minor 134

   String quartets

     Op. 0 112, 113, 275n.1

     Op. 1 5, 112, 275n.1

     Op. 9 113, 114, 116–17, 122, 124

     Op. 17 50, 113, 114, 116, 117, 119

     Op. 20 83, 84, 113, 114, 116, 124

     Op. 33 5, 27, 41, 50, 51, 113, 114, 120, 122, 124, 130, 144, 166

     Op. 33, no. 2, “Joke” 41, 72, 84, 121–22, 124

     Op. 33, no. 3 63–65, 71

     Op. 42 113

     Op. 50 113, 114, 123, 130

     Op. 54/55 113, 114, 115, 275n.7

     Op. 54 41, 113

     Op. 64 51, 113, 114, 115, 117, 124

     Op. 64, no. 2 120–22

     Op. 71/74 55, 113, 114, 116, 122, 124, 134

     Op. 71, no. 3 123–24

     Op. 74, no. 1 118–19

     Op. 76 113–14, 118, 119, 124

     Op. 76, no. 4, “Sunrise” 71

     Op. 77 113, 114

     Op. 103 112, 113

     conversational texture

     as genre 116

     performativity 124–25

     texture 116–17, 119, 120

     in London 115

     in Vienna 115

     vocal models 117

   Songs

     canzonettas 164, 166–69, 170

     cyclic features 164

     Lieder 27, 34, 36, 38, 39, 164–66, 168, 169

     part-songs 172–75, 272n.8

     Scottish Songs 86–89

   Symphonies 33, 95–100, 101–11

     no. 1 101–2

     nos. 1–3 252

     no. 2 270n.4

     nos. 6–8 5, 103, 256

     no. 6, “Le matin” 33, 103

     no. 7, “Le midi” 33, 103

     no. 8, “Le soir” 103

     no. 13 103, 104

     no. 22, “Le philosophe” 33, 104

     no. 25 97

     no. 26, “Lamentatione” 33, 104–5

     no. 28 33

     no. 30, “Alleluja” 104

     no. 31, “Horn Signal” 103, 104

     no. 39 103

     no. 45, “Farewell” 41, 98, 105, 256, 257, 258

     no. 46 41, 72, 127

     no. 49, “La passione” 9, 105

     no. 51 234

     nos. 57–64 252

     no. 60, “Il distratto” 105–6, 183

     no. 63, “La Roxelana” 106, 186

     no. 72 103

     no. 73, “La chasse” 190

     no. 76 106

     no. 78 106

     no. 80 106, 250

     nos. 82–87, “Paris” 51, 107, 130, 132, 252, 257, 258

     no. 83, “La poule” 107–8, 109, 132

     no. 85, “La Reine” 107

     no. 86 53

     no. 88 108, 242, 251

     no. 89 108

     no. 90 72, 108

     no. 91 99, 109

     no. 92 108, 109, 246

     “London” Symphonies 52, 56, 241, 251, 252, 254, 257

     no. 93 37, 67–68, 99, 109, 133

     no. 94, “Surprise” 41, 67, 98, 99, 101, 109, 133, 160, 241, 250, 254–55

     no. 95 39, 109

     no. 96 39, 109

     no. 97 109

     no. 98 62–63, 64, 65–67, 68–71, 97–98, 100, 109

     no. 99 109, 245

     no. 100, “Military” 78, 109, 232, 246, 247, 250

     no. 101, “Clock” 53, 55, 98, 99, 109–10

     no. 102 61–62, 67, 68, 99, 110, 137, 247

     no. 103 41, 42, 66, 79, 110–11

     no. 104 41, 42, 98, 110, 111, 242

Haydn Centenary Festival (1909) 198, 237

Haydn Society 97–98, 100, 251

Haydn, Michael 47–48, 49, 51

Heiterkeit 228–30, 237

Herder, Johann Gottfried von 86, 91

Heartz, Daniel 103, 220

Helms, Marianne 169

Herbeck, Johann 230–36

Hildburghausen, Prince Joseph Friedrich von 5

Hiller, Johann Adam 12, 220

Hirschfeld, Robert 181

Hoffmann, E.T.A. 38, 229, 230, 239

Hofmann, Leopold 7, 11, 34, 47–48, 95, 97, 165, 166

Hofstetter, Roman 275n.1

Hogwood, Christopher 198, 253, 254–55, 256–58, 260, 284n.55

Holzer, Johann 165

Homer 242

Horenstein, Jascha 254–55

Höslinger, Clemens 235

Huber, Thaddäus 24, 27

Hummel, Johann Nepomuk 54, 56, 133

humor and wit 39, 41–42, 61–76, 82–84, 113, 115, 116, 122–25, 241, 246–48

Hungarian language 25–26; nobility 24

Hunter, Anne 167

Imbault, Jean-Jérôme 107

improvisation 35, 208–9

Jackson, William 167

Janissary style, see Turkish style

Jansen-Bartolozzi, Therese 41, 135, 205, 212, 220, 285n.11

Jochum, Eugen 255

Johnson, Samuel 248

Joseph II, Emperor 31, 50, 139, 145, 165, 184

Joseph Haydn Werke (JHW) 100, 212

Kant, Immanuel 43–44, 154, 244–45, 246

Kees, Franz Bernhard 28, 39

Keller, Maria Anna 286n.28

Kelly, Michael 20

Kenner, see audiences: connoisseurs

keyboard instruments 220–25, 285n.6, 285n.9, 287n.48

Kiesewetter, Raphael Georg 230

Kimmerling, Robert 34

Kirnberger, Johann Philipp 5

Klinger, F. M. 104

Klopstock, Friedrich Gottlieb 50

Koch, Heinrich Christoph 120

Koller, Anna Maria 286n.28

Koussevitzky, Serge 254–55

Kozeluch, Leopold 165

Kraus, Joseph Martin 20

Kretschmann, Carl 234

Kretzschmar, Hermann 235, 236

Kreutzner, Anton Liebe von 28

Kris, Ernst 10

Kuijken, Sigiswald 254, 256

kuruc fourth, see Gypsy style

Kurz, Joseph “Bernardon” 6, 10, 12

Kurz, Otto 10

Kurzböck, Joseph Edlen von 165, 209

Kurzböck, Magdalena von 135, 286n.26

Landon, H. C. Robbins 100, 240, 251, 259

Larson, Jens Peter 226

Latrobe, Christain Ignatius 147

Lavater, J.C. 27

Levarie, Sigmund 157

Liebhaber, see audiences: amateurs

Liebhaber Concerte 56

Liszt, Franz 234, 236, 242

liturgy and liturgical reform 138, 139–40, 147

Lobe, Johann Christian 233

Lobkowitz, Prince Franz Joseph Maximilian 113, 114

Locke, John 77

London 3–4, 7, 71, 91, 115, 257

   composing for 34, 97, 99, 107, 108, 114, 115, 119, 126, 133, 134–35, 150, 151, 166–68, 171, 177, 195, 203–06, 221

   see also Haydn: Symphonies nos. 93–104, “London”

London Notebooks 31–32

Longman and Broderip 204

Lorenzi, Giambattista 189

Lowe, Melanie 63

Lunati-Visconti, Maria-Aloysia 19

Macartney, Lord George 85

Macpherson, James 86

Mahler, Gustav 181

Mandyczewski, Eusebius 100

Maria Theresa, Empress 22, 23, 26, 139, 165, 182, 185

Marie Therese, Empress 39, 47

marionette operas 184

   see also Haydn, works, operas

Marriner, Sir Neville 258

Martínez, Marianne von 6, 127, 210

Marx, Adolf Bernhard 231, 234, 235

Märzendorfer, Ernst 252

Mastiaux, Johann Gottfried von 55

Mattheson, Johann 96

Mendelssohn, Felix 232, 275n.31

Mercier, Sebastien 85

Metastasio, Pietro 6, 31, 96, 167, 188, 192

Migliavacca, Ambrogio 178

Milton, John

   Paradise Lost 15, 153, 156, 157

Momigny, J. J. 66, 272n.11, 276n.17

Monn, Matthias 95–98

Montesquieu 83

Monteux, Pierre 254–55

Monteverdi, Claudio 54, 170, 171

moral characters 15–16, 33, 95–96

Morning Chronicle 97, 109, 171

Morzin, Count Karl Joseph Franz 6, 98, 100, 101, 253, 256, 257

Morzin, Countess Wilhelmine 210

Mosel, Ignaz Franz von 233

Mozart, Leopold 4

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus 3, 4, 11, 28, 40, 42, 45, 50–52, 54, 55, 56, 57, 74–75, 132, 134, 141, 171, 198, 220, 240, 243, 244–45

   image xi

   posthumous reputation 51, 228, 231, 233, 234, 236, 237, 239

WORKS

   concertos 100

   Così fan tutte 49, 155, 186

   Don Giovanni 154

   Die Entführung aus dem Serail 33, 81

   “Haydn” quartets 50, 51, 54, 113, 236

   Le nozze di Figaro 18, 49, 51, 97, 105, 195

   quartets 125

   quintets 51

   Requiem 160

   sonatas 52, 137

   symphonies 51

   Die Zauberflöte 42, 52, 81, 154, 158, 163

Müller, August Eberhard 14, 34, 152

Napier, William 86, 87

Naumann, Emil 227–30, 236

Neefe, Christian Gottlob 13

Nelson, Admiral Horatio 145, 172

Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 233

Newman, Ernest 234

Niemetschek, Franz 51, 57

Nietzsche, Friedrich 229, 230

North German critics 11–13, 39, 148

Novello, Vincent 147

Oedenburg (Sopron) 19, 22, 26

Oeuvres complettes de Joseph Haydn 137, 164, 172

Ogny, Count Claude-François-Marie Rigoley d’ 107

Ordonez, Carlo d’ 47–48

Ormandy, Eugene 257

Ossian 86

“Other” 78, 79, 81, 89, 91, 184

overtures 97, 102, 109

Ovid; Ovidius Polytropos 197

Pacchierotti, Gasparo 171

Paisiello, Giovanni 27, 48, 179, 185

Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da 147

“Papa Haydn” image xi, 30, 32, 35, 42, 44, 227–30, 236, 239–40

Paris, composing for 99, 107, 114

   orchestra 257

   see also Haydn: symphonies nos. 82–87, “Paris”

Park, Maria Hester 219

performance practice 8–9, 169, 170, 206, 208–12, 213, 224, 252–53, 255–59, 260

Pezzl, Johann 26

Philip, Robert T. 261

Piccinni, Niccolò 27, 48, 184

Pichler, Caroline 27

pictorialism, see word-painting

Pinnock, Trevor 256

Plato 242

Pleyel, Ignace Joseph 31, 42, 52–53, 54, 56, 109, 130, 152

Ployer, Barbara von 134

Pohl, Carl Ferdinand 235, 239–40, 241–42, 243, 245, 290n.2

Pohl, Zacharias 26

Polzelli, Luigia 27, 49, 187, 189

Pope, Alexander 241, 247

Porpora, Nicola 6, 11, 46, 141, 179

Porta, Nunziato 191, 193, 282n.7, 283n.40

Porter, Roy 85

postal routes 20–23

Price, Uvedale 88

Pressburg (Bratislava) 19, 23, 178, 198

Pressburger Zeitung 22, 24

primitivism 86–89, 90, 91

Prokofiev, Sergey 95

Puchberg, Michael 28

Quantz, Johann Joachim 208

Rammler, Karl Wilhelm 150, 173, 281n.32

recordings, ontology of 224–25

Regnard, J. F. 105

Rellstab, Ludwig 229

Rettensteiner, P. Werigand 20

Reutter, Georg 11, 46, 55, 140–41

rhetorical figures and terms 10, 11, 13, 33–34, 173, 206, 209, 211, 215–16

Richter, Jean Paul 41

Richter, Sviatoslav 127

Riehl, Wilhelm Heinrich 230, 235, 236–37

Riesbeck, Baron J. K. 20, 26

Rosen, Charles 126, 155, 240

Rossini, Gioachino 169, 179

Roth, Franz 51, 282n.5

Rousseau, J.-J. 87, 91, 188

Rushton, Julian 171

Sacchini, Antonio 184

Said, Edward 91, 273n.13

Salieri, Antonio 48, 56, 284n.47, 284n.50

Salomon, Johann Peter 71, 108–9, 114, 115, 133, 150, 256, 257

Sammartini, Giovanni Battista 37, 102

Sandberger, Adolf 204, 235

Sarti, Giuseppe 20, 27, 48, 193

Schanz, Wenzel 132, 134, 204, 221–22, 277n.32, 287n.42

Schenker, Heinrich 35

Scherchen, Hermann 254–55

Schmidt, Leopold 235, 236

Schonberg, Harold C. 240

Schönfeld, Johann Ritter von 4

Schroeter, Rebecca 41, 91, 135

Schubert, Franz 136, 164, 170, 173

Schumann, Robert 137, 164, 227–30, 232

Scottish songs 86–89, 90

Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, Third Earl of 98, 110, 111

Shakespeare, William 31, 88, 106, 167, 168

Silverstolpe, Fredrik Samuel 32, 35, 37, 268n.16

Sisman, Elaine 17, 105, 126

Solomons, Derek 252, 256, 259

Somfai, László 126

Sonnenfels, Joseph von 96, 107

Sopron, see Oedenburg

The Spectator and The Tatler 96

Stamitz, Johann 102

Startzer, Joseph 78

Steffan, Joseph Anton 127, 165, 220

Sterne, Lawrence 41, 74

Steavens, Thomas 19–20, 267n.33

Storace, Stephen 167

Strauss, Richard 170

Strinasacchi, Regina 275n.15

Sturm und Drang style 9, 37, 42, 44, 104, 113, 128, 132, 187, 188, 252

Sulzer, Johann Georg 5, 116

Sutcliffe, W. Dean 126, 137

Süttor, see Eszterháza

Swieten, Baron Gottfried van 4, 10, 11, 12, 15, 150–51, 152, 153, 155, 157, 158, 160, 161

Swift, Jonathan 247

Taruskin, Richard 259

Tasso, Torquato 193

Thibaut, Anton Friedrich Justus 231

Thomson, George 86, 88

Thomson, James 158, 161

Thun, Countess Maria Christine 127, 210

Tomasini, Luigi 101, 114, 256

Tolley, Thomas 10, 282n.9

Tonkünstler-Sozietät 7, 11, 24, 30, 35, 232, 256, 257

Törökös 78–79

   see also Turkish style

Toscanini, Arturo 250, 254–55

Tost, Johann 114, 287n.41

Tovey, Donald F. 156, 157, 240–48

Traeg, Johann 23, 135

Travaglia, Pietro 193

Triest, Johann Karl Friedrich 4, 41, 42, 80, 228, 264n.5

Turgot, A.-R.-J. 85

Turkish or Janissary style 77, 78–79, 92, 181, 183, 184, 232

Tuscany, Grand Duke of (later Leopold II) 34, 39

Tytler, William 86–87

Umlauf, Ignaz 256

Vanhal, Johann Baptist 28, 47–48

Vasari, Giorgio 10

Venice 172

Verbunkos 89–91

Verdi, Giuseppe 160

Vienna 7, 19

   culture in 28, 56–57, 164–65

   Esterházy palace in 19

   Josephinian 27–28

   quartet in 115

   Second Siege of 80

   Vienna to Eisenstadt 19, 49

   Vienna to Eszterháza 22

   Vienna to Oedenburg 22

Vivaldi, Antonio 5, 191

Wagenseil, Georg Christoph 5, 46, 95, 127, 220, 270n.4

Wagner, Richard 227, 228, 234, 235, 236, 237, 239, 242

Walter, Anton 132, 204, 222, 287n.44

Webster, James 172, 242, 256, 286n.22, 286n.23

Weidinger, Anton 101

Weigl, Joseph 101

Weil, Bruno 253, 256

Weingartner, Felix 282n.17

Werner, Gregor Joseph 7, 102, 139, 140, 142

Wheelock, Gretchen 63, 67, 75, 119, 122

Wiener Zeitung 98, 101

Wigand, Balthazar 56–57

Wilde, Oscar 73

Will, Richard 100

wit, see humor

Witt, Franz Xaver 229

word-painting and pictorialism 14–15, 32, 42, 152, 155–56, 160–62, 173, 181, 194

Wordsworth, William 248

Wranitzky, Paul 52–53, 56

Yearbook of Music in Vienna and Prague 4

Zeitung für die elegante Welt 15

Zelter, Karl Friedrich 34, 155

Zeno, Apostolo 179

Zinzendorf, Karl 19, 81

Zoller, Johann 17

Zwettl, Abbey of 8





© Cambridge University Press

Voorwoord

The Cambridge Companion to
Cambridge University Press
0521833477 - The Cambridge Companion to Haydn - by Caryl Clark
Frontmatter/Prelims



The Cambridge Companion to Haydn




This Companion provides an accessible and up-to-date introduction to the musical work and cultural world of Joseph Haydn. Readers will gain an understanding of the changing social, cultural, and political spheres in which Haydn studied, worked, and nurtured his creative talent. Distinguished contributors provide chapters on Haydn and his contemporaries, his audiences and aesthetics, his working environments in Eisenstadt and Eszterháza, and humor and exoticism in Haydn’s oeuvre. Chapters on the reception of his music explore keyboard performance practices, Haydn’s posthumous reputation, sound recordings and images of his symphonies. The book also surveys the major genres in which Haydn wrote, including symphonies, string quartets, keyboard sonatas and trios, sacred music, miscellaneous vocal genres, and operas composed for Eszterháza and London.







The Cambridge Companion to HAYDN




EDITED BY
Caryl Clark







CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
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© Cambridge University Press 2005

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First published 2005

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

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Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication data
The Cambridge Companion to Haydn / edited by Caryl Clark. – 1st ed.
   p.   cm.
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN 0-521-83347-7 (hardcover) – ISBN 0-521-54107-7 (pbk.)
1. Haydn, Joseph, 1732–1809 – Criticism and interpretation.   I. Clark, Caryl Leslie, 1953–
II. Title.

ISBN-13 978-0-521-83347-9 hardback
ISBN-10 0-521-83347-7 hardback
ISBN-13 978-0-521-54107-7 paperback
ISBN-10 0-521-54107-7 paperback




Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this book, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.







for
Lou, Tess, and Reid







Contents




Notes on contributors   [page ix]
Preface and acknowledgments   [xi]
Chronology of Haydn's life and career   [xiii]
List of abbreviations   [xix]
 
Part I • Haydn in context
1 Haydn’s career and the idea of the multiple audience Elaine Sisman   [3]
2 A letter from the wilderness: revisiting Haydn’s Esterházy environments Rebecca Green   [17]
3 Haydn’s aesthetics James Webster   [30]
4 First among equals: Haydn and his fellow composers David Wyn Jones   [45]
 
Part II • Stylistic and interpretive contexts
5 Haydn and humor Scott Burnham   [61]
6 Haydn’s exoticisms: “difference” and the Enlightenment Matthew Head   [77]
 
Part III • Genres
7 Orchestral music: symphonies and concertos David Schroeder   [95]
8 The quartets Mary Hunter   [112]
9 Intimate expression for a widening public: the keyboard sonatas and trios Michelle Fillion   [126]
10 Sacred music James Dack   [138]
11 The sublime and the pastoral in The Creation and The Seasons James Webster   [150]
12 Miscellaneous vocal genres Katalin Komlós   [164]
13 Haydn in the theater: the operas Caryl Clark   [176]
 
Part IV • Performance and reception
14 A composer, his dedicatee, her instrument, and Ⅰ: thoughts on performing Haydn’s keyboard sonatas Tom Beghin   [203]
15 Haydn and posterity: the long nineteenth century James Garrett   [226]
16 The kitten and the tiger: Tovey’s Haydn Lawrence Kramer   [239]
17 Recorded performances: a symphonic study Melanie Lowe   [249]
 
Notes   [264]
Bibliography   [292]
Index   [311]






Notes on contributors




Scott Burnham is Professor of Music and Chair of the Music Department at Princeton University. He is the author of Beethoven Hero (1995), translator of A. B. Marx, Musical Form in the Age of Beethoven (1997), and co-editor, with Michael P. Steinberg, of Beethoven and His World (2000).

Performer-scholar Tom Beghin is Associate Professor at the Faculty of Music, McGill University, Montreal. His discography, on the Eufoda, Claves, Klara, and Bridge labels, features music by Beethoven, Haydn, Moscheles, C. P. E. Bach, Zelter, and Mendelssohn, all performed on historical keyboards, and he is currently recording the complete Haydn works for solo keyboard. Essays on Moscheles and Haydn appear in Haydn and His World (Princeton, 1997) and 19th Century Music.

Caryl Clark is Associate Professor at the Faculty of Music, University of Toronto, and is cross-appointed to the Department of Humanities, University of Toronto at Scarborough. Her publications on Haydn’s operas appear in The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, Studies in Music, Current Musicology, The Haydn Yearbook, and Early Music. She is co-editor of three special opera issues of The University of Toronto Quarterly : Voices of Opera (1998); Opera and Interdisciplinarity (2003); and Opera and Interdisciplinarity (2005).

James Dack is a Senior Lecturer in Music at Royal Holloway, University of London. He has been involved in the editing of Haydn’s early masses in the Joseph Haydn Werke, issued by the Joseph Haydn-Institut, Cologne.

Michelle Fillion is Associate Professor in the School of Music, University of Victoria, in British Columbia. Her forthcoming book, E. M. Forster from Beethoven to Britten: Musical Resonance in a Literary Life, will be published by the University of Illinois Press.

James Garratt is Lecturer in Music and University Organist at the University of Manchester. His main research interests are in nineteenth-century German music, thought, and culture. His publications include Palestrina and the German Romantic Imagination: Interpreting Historicism in Nineteenth-Century Music (2002).

Rebecca Green is an independent scholar whose research interests include the operas of Joseph Haydn. She teaches at the University of Maine at Farmington.

Matthew Head is a Senior Lecturer in Music at the University of Southampton. His research explores music and culture in the German Enlightenment. His monograph, Orientalism, Masquerade and Mozart’s Turkish Music, was published by the Royal Musical Society in 2000.

Mary Hunter is Professor of Music at Bowdoin College in Brunswick Maine. She is the author of The Culture of Opera Buffa in Mozart’s Vienna: the Poetics of Entertainment (1999) and the co-editor of Opera Buffa in Mozart’s Vienna (1997). She is currently working on ideas about performance at the turn of the nineteenth century.

David Wyn Jones is Reader in Music at Cardiff University. His published work has focused on Haydn, Beethoven, and aspects of music dissemination in the eighteenth century. He is the editor of the Oxford Composer Companions: Haydn (2002).

Katalin Komlós, musicologist and fortepiano recitalist, is Professor of Music Theory at the Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest. Since receiving her Ph.D. in musicology from Cornell University, she has written extensively on the history of eighteenth-century keyboard instruments and styles, including Fortepianos and Their Music (1995).

Lawrence Kramer is Professor of English and Music at Fordham University and co-editor of 19th Century Music. His many books include Classical Music and Postmodern Knowledge (1995), Franz Schubert: Sexuality, Subjectivity, Song (1998), Musical Meaning: Toward a Critical History (2002), and Opera and Modern Culture: Wagner and Strauss (2004).

Melanie Lowe is Assistant Professor of Musicology at Vanderbilt University and holds a secondary appointment in Vanderbilt’s program in American and Southern Studies. She has published articles on the music of Joseph Haydn, classical music in American media, and early adolescent girls and teen pop. She is currently completing a book on pleasure and meaning in the late eighteenth-century symphony.

David Schroeder is Professor of Music and Associate Dean of Arts and Social Sciences at Dalhousie University in Halifax. His books include Haydn and the Enlightenment (1990), Mozart in Revolt: Strategies of Resistance, Mischief and Deception (1999), and Cinema’s Illusions, Opera’s Allure: The Operatic Impulse in Film (2002). He has also written articles on Schubert, Enlightenment issues, and Alban Berg, and is a former advisory editor to Eighteenth-Century Studies.

Elaine Sisman is the Anne Parsons Bender Professor of Music and chair of the Music Department at Columbia University. The author of Haydn and the Classical Variation (1993), Mozart: The “Jupiter” Symphony (1993), and editor of Haydn and His World (1997), she has written numerous shorter studies of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century music, as well as the article on “Variations” in the revised New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. She serves on the board of directors of the Joseph Haydn-Institut in Cologne, the Akademie für Mozartforschung in Salzburg, and the American Brahms Society, and is President of the American Musicological Society.

James Webster is the Goldwin Smith Professor of Music at Cornell University. He is the author of Haydn’s “Farewell” Symphony and the Idea of Classical Style: Through-Composition and Cyclic Integration in his Instrumental Music (1991), and co-editor of Haydn Studies (1981) and Opera Buffa in Mozart’s Vienna (1997). He has published widely on Haydn (including the Haydn article in the revised edition of the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians), Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, and Brahms, and on analysis, editorial and performance practice, and the historiography of music. His book in progress is The Music of Mozart’s Operas: Analysis in Context.







Preface and acknowledgments




Joseph Haydn: accomplished composer, businessman, gentleman. That’s the man we see on the front cover of this volume. No steely-eyed, brooding stare as with many a Beethoven image; no rambunctious, youthful or, alternatively, despondent Mozart; no dreamy-eyed Gluck gazing rapturously to heaven in the act of inspired composition. And definitely not “Papa Haydn”! For his gentrified English audience in 1792 Thomas Hardy painted a portrait of Haydn in the grand style. Seated in a plush upholstered chair surrounded by elegant drapery, a “classicized” and “anglicized” Haydn is depicted here, his humble agrarian roots long forgotten in the wake of his successes in a new and vibrant economy. Upwardly mobile London understood the trappings of success represented by the portrait and its symbols of the self-made man – the right (working) hand clasping a hardbound published score, the middle finger inserted between the pages of the volume as if to mark the site of success or to signal the imminence of music-making or its contemplative study. Hairline concealed by a prim wig, accentuating a wide brow, the revered and learned composer, having recently received an honorary doctorate from Oxford University, gazes out at his public – an audience versed in the rhetoric of self-determination and eagerly participating in aesthetic debates. There is no harsh judgment on the part of either subject or viewer here, and certainly no hint of the dismissal that history would soon deliver.

   The triumphant moment recorded by Hardy’s portrait did not repeat itself in Haydn’s continental home. In the far-flung regions of eastern Austria, including Rohrau and Eisenstadt, and into western Hungary where Eszterháza was situated, the image of the successful composer and businessman was eclipsed by that of Papa Haydn, a moniker applied to the musical steward at the Esterházy court and ably transferred onto the aging master lauded throughout Europe who spent his last days in a small cottage in the Viennese suburb of Gumpendorf during the Napoleonic campaign. Use of the epithet peaked after the composer, and the ancien régime in whose shadow he had labored, passed away. Caricatured as a man of innocence from a long-ago time, Haydn was repackaged for nineteenth-century consumption. The composer’s very gradual path towards compositional maturity and late fame grafted readily onto that patronizing image, which perpetuated a simplistic and deterministic approach to later studies of the man and his music.

   Overcoming the sentimentalism, dilettantism, and propagandizing power of the Papa Haydn myth has been a welcome corrective. Modern studies of the composer and his oeuvre would be unthinkable without the explosion of the myth. Retracing the multiple referents associated with Papa Haydn, as James Garrett demonstrates in this volume, opens up further complexities. It recognizes the power of language, charts the cultural factors of reception by accounting for variety and diversity in that reception, and illuminates the forces that shaped and were shaped by the Papa Haydn myth itself. Changes in scholarly concern reveal different ways in which Haydn and his music have been studied in different eras and locations, creating a diversity of cross-cultural representations.

   The picture of Haydn presented here is a richly complex one, the result of new or revamped theoretical and analytical approaches. Part I probes Haydn the man, his aesthetics, and his public through re-readings of canonic texts that deconstruct received opinion. Further contextualization stems from an understanding of the composer’s musical milieu and his interactions with contemporaries, foregrounding the importance of a deeper appreciation of the different locations, languages, and cultures in which Haydn worked. Part II examines two modes of interpreting Haydn’s music – one canonical, the other not. Humor (wit, jesting, Laune, whimsy, and so on), a trope in Haydn studies, is here applied to close readings of the late symphonies from the perspective of a music theorist. In the following chapter on exoticism, a musicologist explores how selected compositions confront societal anxieties concerning “difference” during the Enlightenment. An overview of a wide range of genres, large and small, instrumental and vocal, forms the core of Part III. Canonical works are explored alongside lesser-known ones, conveying the expansive range of Haydn’s musical output during the second half of the eighteenth century and addressing some of their performative contexts. Part IV offers new interpretive angles, ranging from “negotiating” performance through differentiated (and gendered) readings of selected keyboard sonatas, to the changing contexts of symphonic performance and reception based on cultural orientation and technological mediation.

This book reflects an intense collaborative effort from start to finish. In the early stages, Elaine Sisman and James Webster offered valuable guidance. As the project progressed, several authors exchanged written work with one another and benefited from comments and advice offered in the spirit of scholarly exchange. Here the efforts of two contributors – Tom Beghin and Rebecca Green – were truly exemplary. Janette Tilley, a recent graduate of the University of Toronto now teaching at CUNY, prepared all the digitized musical examples with skill and care. In the fall of 2003, the graduate students in my Haydn seminar at the Faculty of Music, University of Toronto, were the first to read and comment on the earliest submissions; they enthusiastically embraced the task and offered astute critical observations. Thanks to Kate Galloway, Dana Hibbard, Eleanor Johnson, Herbert Pauls, Anna Rutledge, Charlène St.-Aubin, and Melissa Thornton for their dedication to this project. (Our rousing performance of Haydn’s late part-songs, lubricated by lots of pre-Christmas cheer, will forever be etched in my memory.) Special thanks to Kate Galloway, who continued on as my research assistant, for assembling the bibliography and drafting the initial chronology, to Rosanne King for her indexing skills, and to proofreader Colin Eatock.

   To Penny Souster, who first approached me about taking on this project, I offer my heartfelt gratitude. In guiding the book through the planning, review, and contract stage, she ensured a smooth transition to her colleague Victoria Cooper, whose unflagging support, along with that of her assistant Rebecca Jones, production editor Annie Lovett, and copyeditor Michael Downes, have proved invaluable. My ever supportive family – Lou, Tess, and Reid – know how much they are loved.

Toronto, November 2004







Chronology of Haydn's life and career




1732   born March 31 (?) in Rohrau, Lower Austria; baptized Franz Joseph on April 1. Known as Sepperl in childhood, he was the second of five children to survive infancy; his father, Mathias Haydn, was a wheelwright, magistrate, and amateur musician, and his mother, Anna Maria Koller, was a cook at the Harrach family castle in Rohrau.
1737   receives his first formal training while living with a distant cousin, Mathias Franck, in nearby Hainburg.
1739   recruited by Georg Reutter (1708–72), Kapellmeister (musical director) at St. Stephen’s Cathedral in Vienna, to join the choir school there; sings treble parts in regular and special services at church and at the Habsburg court, and receives some instruction in theory, composition, and on the violin and harpsichord.
1745   joined at St. Stephen’s Cathedral choir school by his younger brother, Johann Michael (1737–1806).
1749   leaves the choir school at St. Stephen’s Cathedral after his voice changes.
1750   moves into garret room in the Michaelerhaus (where Metastasio, Porpora, and Marianna von Martínez also lived), and works as an independent musician.
1750s   compositions in the 1750s reflect an acquaintance with the music of his contemporaries in a wide range of genres; during the mid-1750s, Haydn worked at several churches as an occasional singer and violinist, and augmented his income performing in pick-up ensembles for special events at court and in the theater; later in the decade he becomes a close friend of fellow violinist and composer Carl Ditters (1739–99).
1751   writes music for his first stage work, Der neue krumme Teufel; comes in close contact with court poet Pietro Metastasio (1714–87).
1753   works as valet and keyboard accompanist for the Neapolitan opera composer and singing teacher Nicola Porpora, from whom he learns much about vocal composition and the Italian language.
1758   begins working as Kapellmeister to Count Morzin, who lived in Vienna during the winter, and in Lukavec, Bohemia in the summer; Haydn’s earliest symphonies were written for the Morzin court.
1760   marries Maria Anna Aloysia Apollonia Keller, elder sister of Therese Keller, Haydn’s first love.
1761   appointed to the position of Vice-Kapellmeister at the court of Prince Paul Anton Esterházy in Eisenstadt; assists Kapellmeister Gregor Joseph Werner (1693–1766) with church music, and is responsible for all secular music; works closely with violinist Luigi Tomasini, leader of the court orchestra, and composes symphonic trilogy on the times of the day – “Le matin,” “Le midi,” and “Le soir” (nos. 6–8).
1762   death of Prince Paul Anton Esterházy, who is succeeded by Prince Nicolaus “The Magnificent”; composes Concerto for Horn in D major. Gluck’s Orfeo ed Euridice premieres in Vienna.
1762–66   court moves between Eisenstadt and Vienna; renovations undertaken on an old hunting lodge located on the south shore of the Neusiedlersee – the future palace, Eszterháza.
1765   begins a thematic catalogue of his compositions, Entwurf-Katalog (“Draft catalogue”), which he supplemented regularly with additional entries until the late 1770s. Studies C. P. E. Bach’s Versuch (perhaps as early as 1763), affecting the improvisatory nature of his keyboard works (especially those with varied reprises).
1766   following the death of Werner, Haydn is promoted to Kapellmeister and assumes full responsibilities for the musical life of the court; Eszterháza becomes the summer home of Prince Nicolaus and the court; Haydn purchases a house in Eisenstadt as a home base.
1767   composes Stabat mater.
1768   the main opera house at Eszterháza is inaugurated with Haydn’s Lo speziale. In the late 1760s Haydn learns to play the baryton, the favorite instrument of Prince Nicolaus.
1771   unauthorized publication of Op. 20 string quartets; composes keyboard sonata in c minor, Hob. xvi: 20.
1772   composes the “Farewell” Symphony (no. 45).
1773   the marionette opera house at Eszterháza opens with Haydn’s Philemon und Baucis, a performance attended by Empress Maria Theresa and members of the Habsburg court.
1774   the first authorized publication of music by Haydn, keyboard sonatas Hob. ⅩⅥ: 21–26 (dedicated to Prince Nicolaus) by Kurzböck in Vienna.
1775   oratorio Il ritorno di Tobia performed at the annual Lenten concert of the Tonkünstler-Societät in Vienna.
1776   beginning of a regular season of opera at Eszterháza, initiated by Gluck’s Orfeo ed Euridice. Haydn writes a short autobiographical sketch, which is published in an Austrian encyclopedia.
1778   sells his house in Eisenstadt; Artaria & Co. in Vienna expands into music publishing.
1779   on January 1 Haydn signs a new contract with Prince Nicolaus Esterházy allowing him to publish and sell his music and accept outside commissions without the consent of his patron. Fire destroys the Eszterháza opera house and many operatic scores are lost. Soprano Luigia Polzelli (1750–1831) is employed at court.
1780   upsurge in Haydn’s commercial activity; Artaria publishes set of six keyboard sonatas by Haydn, Hob. ⅩⅥ: 20, 35–39, dedicated to the virtuoso Auenbrugger sisters.
1781   Haydn’s La fedeltà premiata opens the new opera house at Eszterháza; composes Op. 33 string quartets; first set of Lieder published by Artaria in Vienna. Haydn markets his music in England with Forster.
1782   composes the Missa Cellensis or Mariazell Mass, and publishes the six string quartets of Op. 33 with Artaria; begins professional relationship with publisher John Bland in London. Joseph Elssler, Haydn’s first copyist, dies; he is succeeded by his son of the same name and subsequently by Johann Elssler, who became Haydn’s principal copyist by the late 1780s.
1783   composes second cello concerto, in D major. Marriage of Princess Marie Hermenegild to future Prince Nicolaus Ⅱ.
1784   Armida, Haydn’s last opera for the court, is staged at Eszterháza to mark the completion of the estate; publishes second set of Lieder with Artaria. First known meeting between Haydn and Mozart takes place at a quartet party in Vienna; Haydn played first violin and Mozart played the viola. Carl Friedrich Cramer publishes first issue of his Magazin der Musik, in which he praises the works of Haydn.
1785   becomes a freemason in January and joins the lodge “Zur wahren Eintracht” (True Concord), which Mozart had joined the preceding year; plays string quartets in Vienna with Mozart and friends on February 12; in September Artaria publishes the six string quartets Mozart dedicated to Haydn.
1786   completes the “Paris” Symphonies (nos. 82–87) commissioned for the orchestra of the Concert de la Loge Olympique.
1787   declines invitation to compose an opera for Prague. Death of Christoph Willibald Gluck (b. 1714).
1788   purchases Schanz keyboard.
1789   begins regular contact with Maria Anna von Genzinger, a Viennese aristocrat and amateur pianist married to Prince Nicolaus’s physician; composes solo cantata Arianna a Naxos. The King’s Theatre in London burns down and royal privilege to present Italian opera is transferred to the Pantheon Theatre. The French Revolution begins July 14 with the storming of the Bastille.
1790   Prince Nicolaus Esterházy dies in September; his successor, Prince Anton, disbands the orchestra and opera troupe, leaving Haydn free to seek employment elsewhere; in December he accepts an offer from the German violinist and impresario Johann Peter Salomon (1745–1815) to go to London; enroute he meets the young Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827) at the electoral court in Bonn.
1791   arrives in London in early January; first set of “London” Symphonies (nos. 93–98) performed at Hanover Square Rooms with Salomon on violin and Haydn playing fortepiano; composes L’anima del filosofo, ossia Orfeo ed Euridice, but the production is halted during rehearsals; Symphony no. 92, the “Oxford,” is performed when Haydn receives an honorary Doctor of Music degree from Oxford University in July. Publisher John Bland commissions Thomas Hardy to paint Haydn’s portrait. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (b. 1756) dies in Vienna in December.
1792   leaves London in July; meets with Beethoven again on return trip.
1793   purchases house in the Viennese suburb of Gumpendorf; moves in permanently in 1796. Beethoven moves to Vienna and studies composition with Haydn.
1794   Prince Anton Esterházy dies in January and is succeeded by Prince Nicolaus Ⅱ; Haydn already enroute to London for a second visit, arriving in February, accompanied by his copyist Johann Elssler. Publishing firm Corri & Dussek founded in London; they published two sets of canzonettas, the Opp. 71 and 74 string quartets, and arrangements of the “London” Symphonies for piano trio.
1795   composes Sonata in E♭ (Hob. ⅩⅥ: 52) for Therese Janzen; departs London in August; reinstated as Esterházy Kapellmeister with minimal court duties; responsible for the eight wind instrumentalists of the Harmonie and small group of string players (primarily for performances at Eisenstadt).
1796   begins collaboration with Baron van Swieten, the imperial librarian and censor and leader of the Gesellschaft der Associirten, an association of noble patrons; Haydn composes Trumpet Concerto in E♭, and the first of his final six masses for Prince Nicolaus Ⅱ; Leipzig firm Breitkopf & Härtel becomes Haydn’s main publisher. British folksong arrangements commissioned by George Thomson.
1797   in January, Haydn granted free admission to all concerts of the Gesellschaft der Associirten, and on December 11 appointed “senior assessor” in perpetuity; the society sponsored the first performances of The Creation and The Seasons. Haydn made a life member of the Viennese Tonkünstler Societät. Composes the “Emperor’s Hymn,” which is the basis for a set of variations in the second movement of string quartet Op. 76 no. 3 and later the German national anthem.
1798   first private performance of the oratorio The Creation (Die Schöpfung) at the Schwarzenberg palace.
1799   first public performance of The Creation at the Burgtheater on March 19; oratorio performed again in December as a benefit for the Tonkünstler- Societät. Georg August Griesinger (1769–1845) has initial visit with Haydn as a representative for Breitkopf & Härtel; the publishing firm begins its Oeuvres complettes de Joseph Haydn.
1800   Haydn’s wife dies in Baden in March.
1801   completes oratorio The Seasons (Die Jahrszeiten) in collaboration with Baron van Swieten; private premiere on April 24 at the Schwarzenberg palace followed by the first public performance at the Redoutensaal on May 19; two quartets of Op. 77 dedicated to Prince Lobkowitz.
1802   completes last major composition, the Harmoniemesse, after which he ceases composing (leaving a third string quartet for Lobkowitz incomplete).
1803   last string quartet (Op. 103, incomplete).
1805   Albert Christoph Dies (1755–1822) meets Haydn; Johann Elsser prepares comprehensive thematic catalogue of Haydn’s works (known as Haydn- Verzeichnis). Luigi Cherubini writes “Chant sur la mort de Joseph Haydn” when rumors of his death circulated in France and Britain; it was first performed in 1810, nine months after Haydn’s death.
1806   Haydn housebound from this point onwards.
1808   makes his last public appearance on March 27 at a performance of The Creation conducted by Antonio Salieri at Vienna’s old university.
1809   while Vienna under siege by the invading French armies, Haydn dies on May 31 at his home; burial the next day in the cemetery at Gumpendorf; large memorial service in Vienna on June 15.
1810   Griesinger publishes his Biographische Notizen über Joseph Haydn; Dies publishes his Biographische Nachrichten von Joseph Haydn.
1812   Giuseppe Carpani (1752–1822) publishes his account of the late Haydn in a series of letters entitled “Le Haydine.”
1815   Handel & Haydn Society founded in Boston and dedicated to the performance of oratorios.
1818   Handel & Haydn Society presents the first performance of The Creation in America.
1820   Haydn’s body (minus the head) moved to a tomb in the Bergkirche in Eisenstadt.
1830   Father Heinrich Wondratsch (1793–1881) of the Göttweig Benedictine Abby near Krems completes a thematic catalogue of the library’s holdings of Haydn’s music entitled the Göttweig Catalogue.
1855   Brahms first hears The Creation.
1873   Brahms composes Variations on a Theme of Haydn (theme falsely attributed to Haydn).
1875   Carl Ferdinand Pohl publishes first volume of Haydn biography (dealing with period up to 1766).
1882   second volume of Pohl’s biography (dealing with years 1766–90) appears, coinciding with the 150th anniversary of the composer’s birth.
1887   Haydn’s biographer C. F. Pohl dies.
1895   adaptation of Lo speziale as Der Apotheker performed in Dresden (first modern revival of an opera by Haydn).
1904   Haydn’s house in Gumpendorf opens as a museum.
1907   Breitkopf & Härtel begins a collected edition of Haydn’s works.
1909   special centennial celebrations of Haydn’s death in Vienna in May.
1927   Hugo Botstiber completes third volume of Pohl’s biography of Haydn.
1932   bicentennial celebrations of Haydn’s birth.
1935   museum founded in Haydn’s house in Eisenstadt.
1949   Haydn Society founded by H. C. Robbins Landon.
1950   Haydn Society issues first complete recording of L’anima del filosofo, conducted by Hans Swarowsky.
1951   first staged performance of L’anima del filosofo, in Florence, conducted by Erich Kleiber, and featuring Maria Callas as Eurydice.
1954   Haydn’s head reunited with the rest of his remains in the crypt at the Bergkirche in Eisenstadt.
1955   Joseph Haydn-Institut established in Cologne to edit the first historical-critical complete edition Joseph Haydn Werke (1958–).
1957   Anthony van Hoboken provides first comprehensive bibliographic account of Haydn’s instrumental music and standardizes the composition numbers; catalogue of vocal works completed in 1971; supplement issued in 1978.
1962   H. C. Robbins Landon founds journal Haydn Yearbook.
1965   periodical Haydn-Studien founded and published by Henle Verlag.
1973   conductor Antal Doráti finishes recording the first complete set of Haydn symphonies with the Philharmonia Hungarica (Decca).
1984   Vienna and the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde inaugurate an annual festival devoted to Haydn known as Haydn-Tage.
1989   Eisenstadt begins mounting regular concerts devoted to Haydn.
1993   Haydn Stiftung founded in Eisenstadt, adjacent to the Haydn museum. (www.haydnfestival.at)






Abbreviations of frequently cited sources




Books
Bartha and Bartha, Dénes and László Somfai. Haydn als
Somfai Opernkapellmeister. Budapest: Hungarischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1960.
Briefe Bartha, Dénes (ed.). Joseph Haydn: Gesammelte Briefe und Aufzeichnungen. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1965.
CCLN Landon, H. C. Robbins (ed.). The Collected Correspondence and London Notebooks of Joseph Haydn. London: Barrie and Rockliff, 1959.
Dies Dies, Albert Christoph. Biographische Nachrichten von Joseph Haydn. Vienna: Camesina, 1810.
Gotwals Gotwals, Vernon (trans. and ed.). Joseph Haydn: Eighteenth-Century Gentleman and Genius. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1963. [incorporates translations of Dies and Griesinger]
Griesinger Griesinger, Georg August. Biographische Notizen über Joseph Haydn. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1810; Vienna: Paul Kaltschmid, 1954.
Jones Jones, David Wyn (ed.). Oxford Composer Companion: Haydn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
NG Haydn Webster, James and Georg Feder. The New Grove Haydn. London: Macmillan; New York: Palgrave, 2002.
Landon I, II, III, Landon, H. C. Robbins, Haydn: Chronicle and Works.
IV, V 5 vols. London: Thames and Hudson; Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Vol. I, Haydn: The Early Years, 1732–1765 (1980). Vol. II, Haydn at Eszterháza, 1766–1790 (1978). Vol. III, Haydn in England, 1791–1795 (1976). Vol. IV, Haydn: The Years of The Creation, 1796–1800 (1977). Vol. V, Haydn: The Late Years, 1801–1809 (1977).
 
Journals
HS Haydn-Studien
HYB Haydn Yearbook
JAMS Journal of the American Musicological Society
JM Journal of Musicology
JMR Journal of Musicological Research
ML Music and Letters
MQ Musical Quarterly
MR Music Review
MT Musical Times
 
Others
EK Entwurf-Katalog
Hob. [+ number] Hoboken catalogue number
HV Haydn Verzeichnis
JHW Joseph Haydn Werke




© Cambridge University Press

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'This is an important book for music libraries, particularly in its laying to rest of some myths which have grown up around the composer …' Reference Reviews

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Part I. Haydn in Context: 1. Haydn's career and the idea of the multiple audience Elaine Sisman; 2. A letter from the wilderness: revisiting Haydn's Esterházy environments Rebecca Green; 3. Haydn's aesthetics James Webster; 4. First among equals: Haydn and his fellow composers David Wyn Jones; Part II. Stylistic and Interpretive Contexts: 5. Haydn and humour Scott Burnham; 6. Haydn's exoticisms: 'difference' and the Enlightenment Matthew Head; Part III. Genres: 7. Orchestral music: symphonies and concertos David Schroeder; 8. The quartets Mary Hunter; 9. Intimate expression for a widening public: the keyboard sonatas and trios Michelle Fillion; 10. Sacred music James Dack; 11. The sublime and the pastoral in The Creation and The Seasons James Webster; 12. Miscellaneous vocal genres Katalin Komlós; 13. Haydn in the theatre: the operas Caryl Clark; Part IV. Performance and Reception: 14. A composer, his dedicatee, her instrument, and I: thoughts on performing Haydn's keyboard sonatas Tom Beghin; 15. Haydn and posterity: the long nineteenth century James Garrett; 16. The kitten and the tiger: Tovey's Haydn Lawrence Kramer; 17. Recorded performances: a symphonic study Melanie Lowe.

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