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Routing & Switching Essentials Course Booklet

Cisco Networking Academy

Routing & Switching Essentials Course Booklet - Cisco Networking Academy - ISBN: 9781587133190
Prijs: € 25,65
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Bindwijze: Boek, Paperback
Genre: Datacommunicatie en netwerken
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Beschrijving

Routing and Switching Essentials Course Booklet

Your Cisco® Networking Academy® Course Booklet is designed as a study resource you can easily read, highlight, and review on the go, wherever the Internet is not available or practical:

 

• The text is extracted directly, word-for-word, from the online course so you can highlight important points and take notes in the “Your Chapter Notes” section.

• Headings with the exact page correlations provide a quick reference to the online course for your classroom discussions and exam preparation.

• An icon system directs you to the online curriculum to take full advantage of the images embedded within the Networking Academy online course interface and reminds you to perform the labs, Class Activities, interactive activities, Packet Tracer activities, chapter quizzes, and exams.

 

The Course Booklet is a basic, economical paper-based resource to help you succeed with the Cisco Networking Academy online course.

 

Related titles:

Routing and Switching Essentials Companion Guide

book: 978-1-58713-318-3

eBook: 978-0-13-347622-4

 

Routing and Switching Essentials Lab Manual

book: 978-1-58713-320-6

 

CCENT Practice and Study Guide

book: 978-1-58713-345-9

eBook: 978-0-13-351765-1

 

CCNA Routing and Switching Portable Command Guide

book: 978-1-58720-430-2

eBook: 978-0-13-338136-8

 

Details

Titel: Routing & Switching Essentials Course Booklet
auteur: Cisco Networking Academy
Mediatype: Boek
Bindwijze: Paperback
Taal: Engels
Druk: 1
Aantal pagina's: 336
Uitgever: Pearson Education (us)
Plaats van publicatie: 01
NUR: Datacommunicatie en netwerken
Afmetingen: 215 x 275 x 17
Gewicht: 752 gr
ISBN/ISBN13: 9781587133190
Intern nummer: 24411510

Inhoudsopgave

Chapter 0 Course Introduction 1

0.0 Welcome to Routing and Switching Essentials 1

0.0.1 Message to the Student 1

    0.0.1.1 Welcome 1

    0.0.1.2 A Global Community 1

    0.0.1.3 More Than Just Information 1

    0.0.1.4 How We Teach 2

    0.0.1.5 Practice Leads to Mastery 2

    0.0.1.6 Mind Wide Open 2

    0.0.1.7 Engineering Journals 2

    0.0.1.8 Explore the World of Networking 2

    0.0.1.9 Create Your Own Worlds 3

    0.0.1.10 How Packet Tracer Helps Master Concepts 3

    0.0.1.11 Course Overview 3

    0.1.1.1 Course GUI Tutorial 4

Your Chapter Notes 5

 

Chapter 1 Introduction to Switched Networks 7

1.0 Introduction 7

1.0.1.1 Introduction 7

    1.0.1.2 Class Activity Sent or Received Instructions 7

1.1 LAN Design 8

1.1.1 Converged Networks 8

    1.1.1.1 Growing Complexity of Networks 8

    1.1.1.2 Elements of a Converged Network 8

    1.1.1.3 Borderless Switched Networks 9

    1.1.1.4 Hierarchy in the Borderless Switched Network 9

    1.1.1.5 Core Distribution Access 10

    1.1.1.6 Activity - Identify Switched Network Terminology 11

1.1.2 Switched Networks 11

    1.1.2.1 Role of Switched Networks 11

    1.1.2.2 Form Factors 11

    1.1.2.3 Activity - Identify Switch Hardware 12

1.2 The Switched Environment 12

1.2.1 Frame Forwarding 12

    1.2.1.1 Switching as a General Concept in Networking and Telecommunications 12

    1.2.1.2 Dynamically Populating a Switch MAC Address Table 13

    1.2.1.3 Switch Forwarding Methods 14

    1.2.1.4 Store-and-Forward Switching 14

    1.2.1.5 Cut-Through Switching 15

    1.2.1.6 Activity - Frame Forwarding Methods 15

    1.2.1.7 Activity - Switch It! 15

1.2.2 Switching Domains 15

    1.2.2.1 Collision Domains 15

    1.2.2.2 Broadcast Domains 16

    1.2.2.3 Alleviating Network Congestion 16

    1.2.2.4 Activity - Circle the Domain 17

1.3 Summary 17

1.3.1.1 Class Activity It’s Network Access Time 17

    1.3.1.2 Activity Basic Switch Configurations 18

    1.3.1.3 Packet Tracer – Skills Integration Challenge 18

    1.3.1.4 Summary 18

Your Chapter Notes 19

 

Chapter 2 Basic Switching Concepts and Configuration 21

2.0 Basic Switching Concepts and Configuration 21

2.0.1.1 Introduction 21

    2.0.1.2 Class Activity – Stand By Me 21

2.1 Basic Switch Configuration 22

2.1.1 Configure a Switch with Initial Settings 22

    2.1.1.1 Switch Boot Sequence 22

    2.1.1.2 Recovering From a System Crash 23

    2.1.1.3 Switch LED Indicators 23

    2.1.1.4 Preparing for Basic Switch Management 24

    2.1.1.5 Configuring Basic Switch Management Access with IPv4 24

    2.1.1.6 Lab - Basic Switch Configuration 25

2.1.2 Configure Switch Ports 25

    2.1.2.1 Duplex Communication 25

    2.1.2.2 Configure Switch Ports at the Physical Layer 26

    2.1.2.3 Auto-MDIX 26

    2.1.2.4 Verifying Switch Port Configuration 27

    2.1.2.5 Network Access Layer Issues 27

    2.1.2.6 Troubleshooting Network Access Layer Issues 29

2.2 Switch Security: Management and Implementation 30

2.2.1 Secure Remote Access 30

    2.2.1.1 SSH Operation 30

    2.2.1.2 Configuring SSH 30

    2.2.1.3 Verifying SSH 31

    2.2.1.4 Packet Tracer - Configuring SSH 31

2.2.2 Security Concerns in LANs 32

    2.2.2.1 Common Security Attacks: MAC Address Flooding 32

    2.2.2.2 Common Security Attacks: DHCP Spoofing 33

    2.2.2.3 Common Security Attacks: Leveraging CDP 33

    2.2.2.4 Activity - Identify Common Security Attacks 34

2.2.3 Security Best Practices 34

    2.2.3.1 Best Practices 34

    2.2.3.2 Network Security Tools and Testing 35

    2.2.3.3 Network Security Audits 35

2.2.4 Switch Port Security 36

    2.2.4.1 Secure Unused Ports 36

    2.2.4.2 DHCP Snooping 36

    2.2.4.3 Port Security: Operation 37

    2.2.4.4 Port Security: Violation Modes 38

    2.2.4.5 Port Security: Configuring 39

    2.2.4.6 Port Security: Verifying 39

    2.2.4.7 Ports in Error Disabled State 40

    2.2.4.8 Network Time Protocol (NTP) 40

    2.2.4.9 Packet Tracer - Configuring Switch Port Security 41

    2.2.4.10 Packet Tracer - Troubleshooting Switch Port Security 41

    2.2.4.11 Lab - Configuring Switch Security Features 41

2.3 Summary 41

2.3.1.1 Class Activity – Switch Trio 41

    2.3.1.2 Packet Tracer - Skills Integration Challenge 42

    2.3.1.3 Summary 42

Your Chapter Notes 44

 

Chapter 3 VLANs 45

3.0 VLANs 45

3.0.1.1 Introduction 45

    3.0.1.2 Class Activity Vacation Station 45

3.1 VLAN Segmentation 46

3.1.1 Overview of VLANs 46

    3.1.1.1 VLAN Definitions 46

    3.1.1.2 Benefits of VLANs 46

    3.1.1.3 Types of VLANs 47

    3.1.1.4 Voice VLANs 48

    3.1.1.5 Packet Tracer - Who Hears the Broadcast? 48

3.1.2 VLANs in a Multi-Switched Environment 48

    3.1.2.1 VLAN Trunks 48

    3.1.2.2 Controlling Broadcast Domains with VLANs 49

    3.1.2.3 Tagging Ethernet Frames for VLAN Identification 49

    3.1.2.4 Native VLANs and 802.1Q Tagging 50

    3.1.2.5 Voice VLAN Tagging 51

    3.1.2.6 Activity - Predict Switch Behavior 51

    3.1.2.7 Packet Tracer - Investigating a VLAN Implementation 51

3.2 VLAN Implementations 51

3.2.1 VLAN Assignment 51

    3.2.1.1 VLAN Ranges on Catalyst Switches 51

    3.2.1.2 Creating a VLAN 52

    3.2.1.3 Assigning Ports to VLANs 53

    3.2.1.4 Changing VLAN Port Membership 53

    3.2.1.5 Deleting VLANs 54

    3.2.1.6 Verifying VLAN Information 54

    3.2.1.7 Packet Tracer - Configuring VLANs 55

3.2.2 VLAN Trunks 55

    3.2.2.1 Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Trunk Links 55

    3.2.2.2 Resetting the Trunk to Default State 56

    3.2.2.3 Verifying Trunk Configuration 56

    3.2.2.4 Packet Tracer - Configuring Trunks 56

    3.2.2.5 Lab - Configuring VLANs and Trunking 56

3.2.3 Dynamic Trunking Protocol 57

    3.2.3.1 Introduction to DTP 57

    3.2.3.2 Negotiated Interface Modes 57

    3.2.3.3 Activity - Predict DTP Behavior 58

3.2.4 Troubleshoot VLANs and Trunks 58

    3.2.4.1 IP Addressing Issues with VLAN 58

    3.2.4.2 Missing VLANs 58

    3.2.4.3 Introduction to Troubleshooting Trunks 59

    3.2.4.4 Common Problems with Trunks 60

    3.2.4.5 Trunk Mode Mismatches 60

    3.2.4.6 Incorrect VLAN List 61

    3.2.4.7 Packet Tracer - Troubleshooting a VLAN Implementation - Scenario 1 61

    3.2.4.8 Packet Tracer - Troubleshooting a VLAN Implementation - Scenario 2 61

    3.2.4.9 Lab - Troubleshooting VLAN Configurations 61

3.3 VLAN Security and Design 62

3.3.1 Attacks on VLANs 62

    3.3.1.1 Switch Spoofing Attack 62

    3.3.1.2 Double-Tagging Attack 62

    3.3.1.3 PVLAN Edge 63

    3.3.1.4 Activity - Identify the Type of VLAN Attacks 63

3.3.2 Design Best Practices for VLANs 63

    3.3.2.1 VLAN Design Guidelines 63

    3.3.2.2 Lab - Implementing VLAN Security 64

3.4 Summary 64

3.4.1.1 Class Activity VLAN Plan 64

    3.4.1.2 Packet Tracer - Skills Integration Challenge 65

    3.4.1.3 Summary 65

Your Chapter Notes 67

 

Chapter 4 Routing Concepts 69

4.0 Routing Concepts 69

4.0.1.1 Introduction 69

    4.0.1.2 Class Activity - Do We Really Need a Map? 69

4.1 Initial Configuration of a Router 70

4.1.1 Functions of a Router 70

    4.1.1.1 Characteristics of a Network 70

    4.1.1.2 Why Routing? 71

    4.1.1.3 Routers Are Computers 71

    4.1.1.4 Routers Interconnect Networks 72

    4.1.1.5 Routers Choose Best Paths 73

    4.1.1.6 Packet Forwarding Mechanisms 73

    4.1.1.7 Activity - Identify Router Components 74

    4.1.1.8 Packet Tracer - Using Traceroute to Discover the Network 74

    4.1.1.9 Lab - Mapping the Internet 75

4.1.2 Connect Devices 75

    4.1.2.1 Connect to a Network 75

    4.1.2.2 Default Gateways 76

    4.1.2.3 Document Network Addressing 76

    4.1.2.4 Enable IP on a Host 77

    4.1.2.5 Device LEDs 77

    4.1.2.6 Console Access 78

    4.1.2.7 Enable IP on a Switch 78

    4.1.2.8 Activity - Document an Addressing Scheme 78

    4.1.2.9 Packet Tracer - Documenting the Network 78

4.1.3 Basic Settings on a Router 79

    4.1.3.1 Configure Basic Router Settings 79

    4.1.3.2 Configure an IPv4 Router Interface 79

    4.1.3.3 Configure an IPv6 Router Interface 80

    4.1.3.4 Configure an IPv4 Loopback Interface 81

    4.1.3.5 Packet Tracer - Configuring IPv4 and IPv6 Interfaces 82

4.1.4 Verify Connectivity of Directly Connected Networks 82

    4.1.4.1 Verify Interface Settings 82

    4.1.4.2 Verify IPv6 Interface Settings 83

    4.1.4.3 Filter Show Command Output 83

    4.1.4.4 Command History Feature 84

    4.1.4.5 Packet Tracer - Configuring and Verifying a Small Network 84

    4.1.4.6 Lab - Configuring Basic Router Settings with IOS CLI 84

    4.1.4.7 Lab - Configuring Basic Router Settings with CCP 85

4.2 Routing Decisions 85

4.2.1 Switching Packets Between Networks 85

    4.2.1.1 Router Switching Function 85

    4.2.1.2 Send a Packet 86

    4.2.1.3 Forward to the Next Hop 86

    4.2.1.4 Packet Routing 87

    4.2.1.5 Reach the Destination 87

    4.2.1.6 Activity - Match Layer 2 and Layer 3 Addressing 88

4.2.2 Path Determination 88

    4.2.2.1 Routing Decisions 88

    4.2.2.2 Best Path 89

    4.2.2.3 Load Balancing 89

    4.2.2.4 Administrative Distance 90

    4.2.2.5 Activity - Order the Steps in the Packet Forwarding Process 90

4.3 Router Operation 90

4.3.1 Analyze the Routing Table 90

    4.3.1.1 The Routing Table 90

    4.3.1.2 Routing Table Sources 91

    4.3.1.3 Remote Network Routing Entries 91

    4.3.1.4 Activity - Interpret the Content of a Routing Table Entry 92

4.3.2 Directly Connected Routes 92

    4.3.2.1 Directly Connected Interfaces 92

    4.3.2.2 Directly Connected Routing table Entries 92

    4.3.2.3 Directly Connected Examples 93

    4.3.2.4 Directly Connected IPv6 Example 93

    4.3.2.5 Packet Tracer - Investigating Directly Connected Routes 93

4.3.3 Statically Learned Routes 94

    4.3.3.1 Static Routes 94

    4.3.3.2 Static Route Examples 94

    4.3.3.3 Static IPv6 Route Examples 95

4.3.4 Dynamic Routing Protocols 95

    4.3.4.1 Dynamic Routing 95

    4.3.4.2 IPv4 Routing Protocols 96

    4.3.4.3 IPv4 Dynamic Routing Examples 96

    4.3.4.4 IPv6 Routing Protocols 96

    4.3.4.5 IPv6 Dynamic Routing Examples 97

    4.4 Summary 97

4.4.1.1 Class Activity - We Really Could Use a Map! 97

    4.4.1.2 Summary 97

Your Chapter Notes 99

 

Chapter 5 Inter-VLAN Routing 101

5.0 Inter-VLAN Routing 101

5.0.1.1 Introduction 101

    5.0.1.2 Class Activity Switching to Local-Network Channels 101

5.1 Inter-VLAN Routing Configuration 102

5.1.1 Inter-VLAN Routing Operation 102

    5.1.1.1 What is Inter-VLAN Routing? 102

    5.1.1.2 Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing 102

    5.1.1.3 Router-on-a-Stick Inter-VLAN Routing 103

    5.1.1.4 Multilayer Switch Inter-VLAN Routing 104

    5.1.1.5 Activity - Identify the Types of Inter-VLAN Routing 105

5.1.2 Configure Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing 105

    5.1.2.1 Configure Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing: Preparation 105

    5.1.2.2 Configure Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing: Switch Configuration 106

    5.1.2.3 Configure Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing: Router Interface Configuration 106

    5.1.2.4 Lab - Configuring Per-Interface Inter-VLAN Routing 107

5.1.3 Configure Router-on-a-Stick Inter-VLAN Routing 107

    5.1.3.1 Configure Router-on-a-Stick: Preparation 107

    5.1.3.2 Configure Router-on-a-Stick: Switch Configuration 108

    5.1.3.3 Configure Router-on-a-Stick: Router Subinterface Configuration 108

    5.1.3.4 Configure Router-on-a-Stick: Verifying Subinterfaces 109

    5.1.3.5 Configure Router-on-a-Stick: Verifying Routing 110

    5.1.3.6 Packet Tracer - Configuring Router-on-a-Stick Inter-VLAN Routing 110

    5.1.3.7 Lab - Configuring 801.2Q Trunk-Based Inter-VLAN Routing 111

5.2 Troubleshoot Inter-VLAN Routing 111

5.2.1 Inter-VLAN Configuration Issues 111

    5.2.1.1 Switch Port Issues 111

    5.2.1.2 Verify Switch Configuration 112

    5.2.1.3 Interface Issues 112

    5.2.1.4 Verify Router Configuration 112

5.2.2 IP Addressing Issues 113

    5.2.2.1 Errors with IP Addresses and Subnet Masks 113

    5.2.2.2 Verifying IP Address and Subnet Mask Configuration Issues 113

    5.2.2.3 Activity - Identify the Solution to the Inter-VLAN Routing Issue 114

    5.2.2.4 Packet Tracer - Troubleshooting Inter-VLAN Routing 114

5.3 Layer 3 Switching 114

5.3.1 Layer 3 Switching Operation and Configuration 114

    5.3.1.1 Introduction to Layer 3 Switching 114

    5.3.1.2 Inter-VLAN Routing with Switch Virtual Interfaces 115

    5.3.1.3 Inter-VLAN Routing with Switch Virtual Interfaces (Cont.) 115

    5.3.1.4 Inter-VLAN Routing with Routed Ports 116

    5.3.1.5 Configuring Static Routes on a Catalyst 2960 117

5.3.2 Troubleshoot Layer 3 Switching 118

    5.3.2.1 Layer 3 Switch Configuration Issues 118

    5.3.2.2 Example: Troubleshooting Layer 3 Switching 118

    5.3.2.3 Activity - Troubleshoot Layer 3 Switching Issues 119

    5.3.2.4 Lab - Troubleshooting Inter-VLAN Routing 119

5.4 Summary 120

5.4.1 Summary 120

    5.4.1.1 Class Activity The Inside Track 120

    5.4.1.2 Packet Tracer - Skills Integration Challenge 120

    5.4.1.3 Summary 120

Your Chapter Notes 121

 

Chapter 6 Static Routing 123

6.0 Static Routing 123

6.0.1.1 Introduction 123

    6.0.1.2 Class Activity - Which Way Should We Go 123

6.1 Static Routing Implementation 124

6.1.1 Static Routing 124

    6.1.1.1 Reach Remote Networks 124

    6.1.1.2 Why Use Static Routing? 124

    6.1.1.3 When to Use Static Routes 125

    6.1.1.4 Activity - Identify the Advantages and Disadvantages of Static Routing 125

6.1.2 Types of Static Routes 125

    6.1.2.1 Static Route Applications 125

    6.1.2.2 Standard Static Route 126

    6.1.2.3 Default Static Route 126

    6.1.2.4 Summary Static Route 126

    6.1.2.5 Floating Static Route 127

    6.1.2.6 Activity - Identify the Type of Static Route 127

6.2 Configure Static and Default Routes 127

6.2.1 Configure IPv4 Static Routes 127

    6.2.1.1 ip route Command 127

    6.2.1.2 Next-Hop Options 128

    6.2.1.3 Configure a Next-Hop Static Route 128

    6.2.1.4 Configure a Directly Connected Static Route 129

    6.2.1.5 Configure a Fully Specified Static Route 130

    6.2.1.6 Verify a Static Route 131

6.2.2 Configure IPv4 Default Routes 131

    6.2.2.1 Default Static Route 131

    6.2.2.2 Configure a Default Static Route 131

    6.2.2.3 Verify a Default Static Route 132

    6.2.2.4 Packet Tracer - Configuring IPv4 Static and Default Routes 132

    6.2.2.5 Lab - Configuring IPv4 Static and Default Routes 132

6.2.3 Configure IPv6 Static Routes 132

    6.2.3.1 The ipv6 route Command 132

    6.2.3.2 Next-Hop Options 133

    6.2.3.3 Configure a Next-Hop Static IPv6 Route 133

    6.2.3.4 Configure a Directly Connected Static IPv6 Route 134

    6.2.3.5 Configure a Fully Specified Static IPv6 Route 134

    6.2.3.6 Verify IPv6 Static Routes 135

6.2.4 Configure IPv6 Default Routes 135

    6.2.4.1 Default Static IPv6 Route 135

    6.2.4.2 Configure a Default Static IPv6 Route 136

    6.2.4.3 Verify a Default Static Route 136

    6.2.4.4 Packet Tracer - Configuring IPv6 Static and Default Routes 136

    6.2.4.5 Lab - Configuring IPv6 Static and Default Routes 136

6.3 Review of CIDR and VLSM 137

6.3.1 Classful Addressing 137

    6.3.1.1 Classful Network Addressing 137

    6.3.1.2 Classful Subnet Masks 137

    6.3.1.3 Classful Routing Protocol Example 138

    6.3.1.4 Classful Addressing Waste 138

6.3.2 CIDR 139

    6.3.2.1 Classless Inter-Domain Routing 139

    6.3.2.2 CIDR and Route Summarization 139

    6.3.2.3 Static Routing CIDR Example 140

    6.3.2.4 Classless Routing Protocol Example 140

6.3.3 VLSM 141

    6.3.3.1 Fixed-Length Subnet Masking 141

    6.3.3.2 Variable-Length Subnet Masking 141

    6.3.3.3 VLSM in Action 142

    6.3.3.4 Subnetting Subnets 142

    6.3.3.5 VLSM Example 142

    6.3.3.6 Packet Tracer - Designing and Implementing a VLSM Addressing Scheme 143

    6.3.3.7 Lab - Designing and Implementing Addressing with VLSM 143

6.4 Configure Summary and Floating Static Routes 143

6.4.1 Configure IPv4 Summary Routes 143

    6.4.1.1 Route Summarization 143

    6.4.1.2 Calculate a Summary Route 144

    6.4.1.3 Summary Static Route Example 144

    6.4.1.4 Activity - Determine the Summary Network Address and Prefix 145

    6.4.1.5 Packet Tracer - Configuring IPv4 Route Summarization - Scenario 1 145

    6.4.1.6 Packet Tracer - Configuring IPv4 Route Summarization - Scenario 2 145

6.4.2 Configure IPv6 Summary Routes 145

    6.4.2.1 Summarize IPv6 Network Addresses 145

    6.4.2.2 Calculate IPv6 Network Addresses 145

    6.4.2.3 Configure an IPv6 Summary Address 146

    6.4.2.4 Packet Tracer - Configuring IPv6 Route Summarization 146

    6.4.2.5 Lab - Calculating Summary Routes with IPv4 and IPv6 146

6.4.3 Configure Floating Static Routes 146

    6.4.3.1 Floating Static Routes 146

    6.4.3.2 Configure a Floating Static Route 147

    6.4.3.3 Test the Floating Static Route 147

    6.4.3.4 Packet Tracer - Configuring a Floating Static Route 147

6.5 Troubleshoot Static and Default Route Issues 148

6.5.1 Packet Processing with Static Routes 148

    6.5.1.1 Static Routes and Packet Forwarding 148

6.5.2 Troubleshoot IPv4 Static and Default Route Configuration 148

    6.5.2.1 Troubleshoot a Missing Route 148

    6.5.2.2 Solve a Connectivity Problem 149

    6.5.2.3 Packet Tracer - Troubleshooting Static Routes 150

    6.5.2.4 Packet Tracer - Troubleshooting VLSM and Route Summarization 150

    6.5.2.5 Lab - Troubleshooting Static Routes 150

6.6 Summary 150

6.6.1.1 Class Activity - Make It Static 150

    6.6.1.2 Packet Tracer Skills Integration Challenge 151

    6.6.1.3 Summary 151

Your Chapter Notes 152

 

Chapter 7 Routing Dynamically 153

7.0 Routing Dynamically 153

7.0.1.1 Introduction 153

    7.0.1.2 Class Activity How Much Does This Cost 153

7.1 Dynamic Routing Protocols 154

7.1.1 Dynamic Routing Protocol Operation 154

    7.1.1.1 The Evolution of Dynamic Routing Protocols 154

    7.1.1.2 Purpose of Dynamic Routing Protocols 155

    7.1.1.3 The Role of Dynamic Routing Protocols 155

    7.1.1.4 Activity - Identify Components of a Routing Protocol 156

7.1.2 Dynamic versus Static Routing 156

    7.1.2.1 Using Static Routing 156

    7.1.2.2 Static Routing Scorecard 156

    7.1.2.3 Using Dynamic Routing Protocols 156

    7.1.2.4 Dynamic Routing Scorecard 157

    7.1.2.5 Activity - Compare Static and Dynamic Routing 157

7.1.3 Routing Protocol Operating Fundamentals 157

    7.1.3.1 Dynamic Routing Protocol Operation 157

    7.1.3.2 Cold Start 157

    7.1.3.3 Network Discovery 158

    7.1.3.4 Exchanging the Routing Information 159

    7.1.3.5 Achieving Convergence 160

    7.1.3.6 Packet Tracer - Investigating Convergence 160

7.1.4 Types of Routing Protocols 161

    7.1.4.1 Classifying Routing Protocols 161

    7.1.4.2 IGP and EGP Routing Protocols 161

    7.1.4.3 Distance Vector Routing Protocols 162

    7.1.4.4 Link-State Routing Protocols 163

    7.1.4.5 Classful Routing Protocols 163

    7.1.4.6 Classless Routing Protocols 164

    7.1.4.7 Routing Protocol Characteristics 165

    7.1.4.8 Routing Protocol Metrics 165

    7.1.4.9 Activity - Classify Dynamic Routing Protocols 166

    7.1.4.10 Activity - Compare Routing Protocols 166

    7.1.4.11 Activity - Match the Metric to the Protocol 166

7.2 Distance Vector Dynamic Routing 166

7.2.1 Distance Vector Routing Protocol Operation 166

    7.2.1.1 Distance Vector Technologies 166

    7.2.1.2 Distance Vector Algorithm 166

    7.2.1.3 Activity - Identify Distance Vector Terminology 167

7.2.2 Types of Distance Vector Routing Protocols 167

7.2.2.1 Routing Information Protocol 167

    7.2.2.2 Enhanced Interior-Gateway Routing Protocol 168

    7.2.2.3 Activity - Compare RIP and EIGRP 168

    7.2.2.4 Packet Tracer - Comparing RIP and EIGRP Path Selection 168

7.3 RIP and RIPng Routing 169

7.3.1 Configuring the RIP Protocol 169

    7.3.1.1 Router RIP Configuration Mode 169

    7.3.1.2 Advertising Networks 169

    7.3.1.3 Examining Default RIP Settings 170

    7.3.1.4 Enabling RIPv2 170

    7.3.1.5 Disabling Auto Summarization 171

    7.3.1.6 Configuring Passive Interfaces 171

    7.3.1.7 Propagating a Default Route 172

    7.3.1.8 Packet Tracer - Configuring RIPv2 172

7.3.2 Configuring the RIPng Protocol 172

    7.3.2.1 Advertising IPv6 Networks 172

    7.3.2.2 Examining the RIPng Configuration 173

    7.3.2.3 Packet Tracer - Configuring RIPng 174

    7.3.2.4 Lab - Configuring RIPv2 174

7.4 Link-State Dynamic Routing 174

7.4.1 Link-State Routing Protocol Operation 174

    7.4.1.1 Shortest Path First Protocols 174

    7.4.1.2 Dijkstra’s Algorithm 174

    7.4.1.3 SPF Example 175

7.4.2 Link-State Updates 175

    7.4.2.1 Link-State Routing Process 175

    7.4.2.2 Link and Link-State 176

    7.4.2.3 Say Hello 176

    7.4.2.4 Building the Link-State Packet 177

    7.4.2.5 Flooding the LSP 177

    7.4.2.6 Building the Link-State Database 178

    7.4.2.7 Building the SPF Tree 178

    7.4.2.8 Adding OSPF Routes to the Routing Table 179

    7.4.2.9 Activity - Building the Link-State Database and SPF Tree 179

7.4.3 Why Use Link-State Routing Protocols 179

    7.4.3.1 Why Use Link-State Protocols? 179

    7.4.3.2 Disadvantages of Link-State Protocols 180

    7.4.3.3 Protocols that Use Link-State 180

7.5 The Routing Table 181

7.5.1 Parts of an IPv4 Route Entry 181

    7.5.1.1 Routing Table Entries 181

    7.5.1.2 Directly Connected Entries 181

    7.5.1.3 Remote Network Entries 182

    7.5.1.4 Activity - Identify Parts of an IPv4 Routing Table Entry 182

7.5.2 Dynamically Learned IPv4 Routes 182

    7.5.2.1 Routing Table Terms 182

    7.5.2.2 Ultimate Route 183

    7.5.2.3 Level 1 Route 183

    7.5.2.4 Level 1 Parent Route 183

    7.5.2.5 Level 2 Child Route 183

    7.5.2.6 Activity - Identify Parent and Child IPv4 Routes 184

7.5.3 The IPv4 Route Lookup Process 184

    7.5.3.1 Route Lookup Process 184

    7.5.3.2 Best Route = Longest Match 184

    7.5.3.3 Activity - Determine the Longest Match Route 185

7.5.4 Analyze an IPv6 Routing Table 185

    7.5.4.1 IPv6 Routing Table Entries 185

    7.5.4.2 Directly Connected Entries 185

    7.5.4.3 Remote IPv6 Network Entries 186

    7.5.4.4 Activity - Identify Parts of an IPv6 Routing Table Entry 187

7.6 Summary 187

7.6.1.1 Class Activity IPv6 - Details, Details... 187

    7.6.1.2 Summary 187

Your Chapter Notes 189

 

Chapter 8 Single-Area OSPF 191

8.0 Single-Area OSPF 191

8.0.1.1 Introduction 191

    8.0.1.2 Class Activity - Can Submarines Swim? 191

8.1 Characteristics of OSPF 191

8.1.1 Open Shortest Path First 191

    8.1.1.1 Evolution of OSPF 191

    8.1.1.2 Features of OSPF 192

    8.1.1.3 Components of OSPF 193

    8.1.1.4 Link-State Operation 193

    8.1.1.5 Single-Area and Multiarea OSPF 194

    8.1.1.6 Activity - Identify OSPF Features and Terminology 195

8.1.2 OSPF Messages 195

    8.1.2.1 Encapsulating OSPF Messages 195

    8.1.2.2 Types of OSPF Packets 195

    8.1.2.3 Hello Packet 196

    8.1.2.4 Hello Packet Intervals 197

    8.1.2.5 Link-State Updates 197

    8.1.2.6 Activity - Identify the OSPF Packet Types 198

8.1.3 OSPF Operation 198

    8.1.3.1 OSPF Operational States 198

    8.1.3.2 Establish Neighbor Adjacencies 198

    8.1.3.3 OSPF DR and BDR 199

    8.1.3.4 Synchronizing OSPF Databases 200

    8.1.3.5 Activity - Identify the OSPF States for Establishing Adjacency 200

    8.1.3.6 Video Demonstration - Observing OSPF Protocol Communications 200

8.2 Configuring Single-Area OSPFv2 201

8.2.1 OSPF Router ID 201

    8.2.1.1 OSPF Network Topology 201

    8.2.1.2 Router OSPF Configuration Mode 201

    8.2.1.3 Router IDs 201

    8.2.1.4 Configuring an OSPF Router ID 202

    8.2.1.5 Modifying a Router ID 203

    8.2.1.6 Using a Loopback Interface as the Router ID 203

8.2.2 Configure Single-Area OSPFv2 203

    8.2.2.1 Enabling OSPF on Interfaces 203

    8.2.2.2 Wildcard Mask 204

    8.2.2.3 The network Command 204

    8.2.2.4 Passive Interface 205

    8.2.2.5 Configuring Passive Interfaces 205

    8.2.2.6 Activity - Calculate the Subnet and Wildcard Masks 206

    8.2.2.7 Packet Tracer - Configuring OSPFv2 in a Single-area 206

8.2.3 OSPF Cost 206

    8.2.3.1 OSPF Metric = Cost 206

    8.2.3.2 OSPF Accumulates Costs 207

    8.2.3.3 Adjusting the Reference Bandwidth 207

    8.2.3.4 Default Interface Bandwidths 208

    8.2.3.5 Adjusting the Interface Bandwidths 209

    8.2.3.6 Manually Setting the OSPF Cost 209

8.2.4 Verify OSPF 210

    8.2.4.1 Verify OSPF Neighbors 210

    8.2.4.2 Verify OSPF Protocol Settings 210

    8.2.4.3 Verify OSPF Process Information 211

    8.2.4.4 Verify OSPF Interface Settings 211

    8.2.4.5 Lab - Configuring Basic Single-Area OSPFv2 211

8.3 Configure Single-Area OSPFv3 211

8.3.1 OSPFv2 vs. OSPFv3 211

    8.3.1.1 OSPFv3 211

    8.3.1.2 Similarities Between OSPFv2 to OSPFv3 212

    8.3.1.3 Differences Between OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 213

    8.3.1.4 Link-Local Addresses 213

    8.3.1.5 Activity - Compare and Contrast OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 214

8.3.2 Configuring OSPFv3 214

    8.3.2.1 OSPFv3 Network Topology 214

    8.3.2.2 Link-Local Addresses 214

    8.3.2.3 Assigning Link-Local Addresses 214

    8.3.2.4 Configuring the OSPFv3 Router ID 215

    8.3.2.5 Modifying an OSPFv3 Router ID 216

    8.3.2.6 Enabling OSPFv3 on Interfaces 216

8.3.3 Verify OSPFv3 217

    8.3.3.1 Verify OSPFv3 Neighbors 217

    8.3.3.2 Verify OSPFv3 Protocol Settings 217

    8.3.3.3 Verify OSPFv3 Interfaces 217

    8.3.3.4 Verify the IPv6 Routing Table 218

    8.3.3.5 Packet Tracer - Configuring Basic OSPFv3 218

    8.3.3.6 Lab - Configuring Basic Single-Area OSPFv3 218

8.4 Summary 218

8.4.1.1 Class Activity - Stepping Through OSPFv3 218

    8.4.1.2 Packet Tracer - Skills Integration Challenge 219

    8.4.1.3 Summary 219

Your Chapter Notes 220

 

Chapter 9 Access Control Lists 221

9.0 Access Control Lists 221

9.0.1.1 Introduction 221

    9.0.1.2 Class Activity Permit Me to Assist You 221

9.1 IP ACL Operation 222

9.1.1 Purpose of ACLs 222

    9.1.1.1 What is an ACL? 222

    9.1.1.2 A TCP Conversation 223

    9.1.1.3 Packet Filtering 223

    9.1.1.4 Packet Filtering (Cont.) 224

    9.1.1.5 ACL Operation 225

    9.1.1.6 Packet Tracer - ACL Demonstration 225

9.1.2 Standard versus Extended IPv4 ACLs 225

    9.1.2.1 Types of Cisco IPv4 ACLs 225

    9.1.2.2 Numbering and Naming ACLs 226

9.1.3 Wildcard Masks in ACLs 226

    9.1.3.1 Introducing ACL Wildcard Masking 226

    9.1.3.2 Wildcard Mask Examples 227

    9.1.3.3 Calculating the Wildcard Mask 228

    9.1.3.4 Wildcard Mask Keywords 229

    9.1.3.5 Examples Wildcard Mask Keywords 229

    9.1.3.6 Activity - Determine the Correct Wildcard Mask 229

    9.1.3.7 Activity - Determine the Permit or Deny 229

9.1.4 Guidelines for ACL creation 229

    9.1.4.1 General Guidelines for Creating ACLs 229

    9.1.4.2 ACL Best Practices 230

    9.1.4.3 Activity - ACL Operation 230

9.1.5 Guidelines for ACL Placement 230

    9.1.5.1 Where to Place ACLs 230

    9.1.5.2 Standard ACL Placement 231

    9.1.5.3 Extended ACL Placement 232

    9.1.5.4 Activity - Placing Standard and Extended ACLs 233

9.2 Standard IPv4 ACLs 233

9.2.1 Configure Standard IPv4 ACLs 233

    9.2.1.1 Entering Criteria Statements 233

    9.2.1.2 Configuring a Standard ACL 233

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