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Physics Of Sports

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Physics Of Sports - Lisa, Michael - ISBN: 9780073513973
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Beschrijving

The Physics Of Sports Is Intended As A Textbook For A 1 Semester Or A 1-2 Quarter Undergraduate Course, For Students - Not Necessarily Intending To Major In Physical Science, Engineering, Or A Related Field.

Details

Titel: Physics Of Sports
auteur: Lisa, Michael
Mediatype: Boek
Bindwijze: Paperback
Taal: Engels
Aantal pagina's: 288
Uitgever: Mcgraw-hill Education - Europe
Plaats van publicatie: 01
NUR: Gezondheidswetenschappen
Afmetingen: 278 x 217 x 18
Gewicht: 766 gr
ISBN/ISBN13: 9780073513973
Intern nummer: 24612343

Inhoudsopgave

Preface to the student

Preface to the instructor

I Primary Chapters

1Warm-up: Basic concepts

1.1Quantifying the world of sports Units, conversions, scientific notation

1.2When we don’t have exact numbers Estimation, typical scales

1.3The center of mass Center of mass

Problems

2Racing, mathematically1D kinematics

2.1Phelps in BeijingSpeed, velocity, position and graphs

2.2Bolt in BerlinAcceleration, constant acceleration kinematics

2.3Rope-climbing and divingVertical motion and gravity

Problems

3Net Force: Dwight Howard illustratesForces, dynamics

3.1The Physics of a Dwight Howard Dunk

3.1.1Waiting for the passWeight, ground reaction force, equilibrium, free-body diagrams, Newton’s first law
3.1.2Spec sheetWeight and mass
3.1.3The launchNewton’s 2nd and 3rd Laws; dynamics of a jump; dynamics with non-constant forces; ground reaction force
3.1.4The flightFreefall dynamics, revisited
3.1.5The landingCushioning limitations, GRF revisited

3.2Sideways tractionFriction

3.3More complex situations2D dynamics and applications

3.3.1Dwight Howard takes a quick stepVectors
3.3.2Football tryoutsTwo moving bodies; how to increase friction
3.3.3Ball throw speedImportant application

3.4“Imaginary forces” in sports

3.4.1Imaginary pushes on Dale Earnhardt, Jr.Sensation of force in a non-inertial frame
3.4.2Two non-traditional Olympic eventsPotential to mistakenly interpret a reaction force
3.4.3Discus throwCentripetal and “centrifugal” forces

Equations

Problems

4Punts, Dick Fosbury & other projectilesProjectile Motion

4.1The math: simpler than you think2D kinematics

4.2Football punt: range, hangtime and compromiseRange, hangtime

4.3Shot putThe range when the starting and ending height are not the same

4.4Human projectilesParabolic motion of CM with changing body shape

4.4.1The Blake Griffin ballet
4.4.2Dick Fosbury’s Flop
4.4.3Bob Beamon’s long jump

Equations

Problems

5Curveballs, foul shots and bent kicksAerodynamic forces

5.1Overview4 forces; use of approximations

5.2Immersion in fluid: BuoyancyBuoyant force

5.3Moving through fluid: DragDrag force; drag coefficient; terminal velocity

5.4Sideward forces from asymmetries

5.4.1The swing of a cricket ballSidewards force from asymmetric surface roughness
5.4.2Bending a ball’s flightMagnus force

5.5Aerodynamic forces, one at a timeExamples

5.5.1Curveballs and subatomic physicsMagnus as a centripetal force; unexpected analogy
5.5.2Do we need a computer?Constant-force approximation
5.5.3A simple formula for a curveballSidewards deflection over a short part of the spiral
5.5.4Roberto Carlos’s “impossible” free kickreal-life spiral example; aero-dominated versus gravity-dominated ball sports
5.5.5John Paxson, master of forcesSystematic breakdown of a basketball shot

5.6More complicated aerodynamics in sportsSemi-quantitative analysis of more complex situations

5.6.1KnucklingEffects of fluctuating orientation and drag
5.6.2Tilting into the wind: discusNon-Magnus lift
5.6.3Human wings: ski jumpsLift with adjustable tilt
5.6.4Making the world safer for javelin spectatorsChanges in javelin design and rules
5.6.5Not so fast! Polyurethane swimsuitsDrag effects in water and rule changes

5.7Not all air is created equalVariations in air density and the effect on sports

5.7.1Rocky Mountain (Natural) HighAltitude and air density
5.7.2Hot days are (not) a dragTemperature and air density
5.7.3It’s not just the heat– it’s the humidityHumidity and air density effects
5.7.4Storm fronts

Equations

Problems

6Game changers: collisions in sportsCollisions and momentum

6.1What is a “collision” and how to think about itMomentum, impulse

6.2The physics of a football tackleCompletely inelastic collisions, conservation of momentum

6.2.1The energy of a crunchKinetic energy, energy lost
6.2.2Helmet designImpulse, relation to force
6.2.3Forcing a runner out of bounds2D inelastic collisions

6.3Gentler pursuits - BowlingElastic collisions; also isolated and non-isolated systems

6.3.1Beginner’s first roll - head-on collision1D elastic collisions
6.3.2Birthday-party bowlingImportance of an isolated system when using momentum conservation
6.3.3Off-center hits - converting a lily2D elastic collision
6.3.4Off-center billiards shotsSpecial case: 2D elastic collisions for m_1 = m_2
6.3.5Beyond 2D - The upward hop of the pinImpulse and an isolated system

6.4A happy medium: dribbling and drivingPartially inelastic collisions

6.4.1The sad, short life of the NBA’s synthetic ballCoefficient of restitution
6.4.2 Pádraig Harrington’s drive and swinging harderinelastic collision with finite-mass objects; COR variation with speed

6.5Off-center hits: Spinning the ballQualitative intro to torque and spin

6.5.1Bounce passtorque from friction; translation & rotation motion
6.5.2Diving shotAerodynamic and collisional aspects of topspin
6.5.3Backspin on a golf shotAerodynamic and collisional aspects of backspin

Equations

Problems

7Energy in sports: bursts of powerEnergy, power, work, efficiency, elasticity

7.1Bouncing basketball - the whole processConversion of energy; elastic and gravitational energy

7.1.1Heat in basketball: not just for Miamikinetic to thermal energy
7.1.2Energy during the bounceElastic potential energy
7.1.3Details of energy during the riseGravitational potential energy

7.2Efficiencyvarious definitions

7.2.1The efficiency of a basketball bounce
7.2.2The efficiency of a golf drive
7.2.3Heat Death

7.3The athlete: the energetic starting pointChemical energy and its conversion

7.3.1The source of energy and its flowFood energy, Calories
7.3.2The human engine I - energy conversionBiochemistry of food processing; energy storage

7.4Keeping score - energy accounting in sportsThe energy conservation concept and its application to athletes

7.4.1The water analogy
7.4.2How useful is the energy conservation concept, really?In-principle versus practical utility of the concept

7.5Uncle Rico’s hopes dashedWork, power and the human engine

7.5.1WorkWork-energy theorem; connection to forces
7.5.2Power
7.5.3The human engine II - powerCaloric conversion rates

7.6Behdad Salimikordsiabi’s clean and jerkQuantitative analysis of power lift; details of motion

7.6.1Work during a lift
7.6.2The snatch and clean-and-jerk techniquesDetails of a complicated set of moves

Equations

Problems

8Energy and timing in elastic equipmentStiffness, timing, elastic energy storage

8.1The Physics of Archery I - Energy storage and transferHooke’s Law, efficiency of energy transfer

8.1.1The bow’s energyHooke’s Law
8.1.2Bow and arrow efficiencyEnergy “loss” depends on system details

8.2The Physics of Archery II - Fire PowerOscillation frequency and period

8.3The Physics of Archery III - Archer’s Paradoxstiffness of extended rod, timing details

8.3.1Oscillations of an arrowCharacterizing the flexibility of a rod
8.3.2How the archer’s paradox worksBuckling, matching timing, details

8.4Zdeno Chára’s slapshot - fast storage, faster releaseenergy storage and collisions

8.5Bungee jumping brides & quadratic equationsExtended example with tension; quadratic equation

8.5.1Dangling above the waterTension as an equilibrating force
8.5.2How low will he bounce?non-trivial energy example and the quadratic equation

Equations

Problems

9The physics of cyclingSustained power generation, rolling friction, more aerodynamics, power balance, rotational dynamics, torque

9.1Input to the bike - sustained human power

9.1.1Caloric power requirements for long-term effortMetabolic Equivalent Task (MET) ratings
9.1.2Oxygen uptake, VO2max and powerdefinition of VO_2max; rider efficiency
9.1.3Power-to-weight ratioPWR

9.2Power outputPower, force and velocity

9.2.1HillsGravitational force along a slope
9.2.2Rolling resistanceDissipation during rolling
9.2.3Wind dragDrag in still and moving air
9.2.4The Bicycle Power EquationIterative solution to complicated equations
9.2.5Cycling versus other modes of transportComparison of power requirements
9.2.6DraftingAerodynamics of more than one object

9.3Talansky drives the bikeTorque and rotational motion

9.3.1RollingConnection between linear and rotational motion
9.3.2Drivetrain I - GearsGeometry of chain rings, importance of cadence
9.3.3That annoying 2p – angular velocityAngular velocity, the radian
9.3.4Drivetrain II - Chain actionTorque with fixed right angle lever arm
9.3.5Drivetrain III - Chain reactionClarifying Newton’s Third Law
9.3.6Drivetrain IV - Pushing the pedalsLine of action. Torque for forces at an angle
9.3.7Rolling friction, revisitedTorque nature of “rolling friction”, lever arm when line of action is not tangent to edge
9.3.8Back to basics - the wheel againMoment of inertia, angular accelera tion, rotational kinetic energy

Equations

Problems

10Twisting athletes in flightAngular motion with changing moment of inertia, rotation about fixed axes and in free space, conservation of angular momentum

10.1Human rotationAnatomical axes and moments of inertia

10.2Backward Giant CircleTorque, energy, rotation around fixed axis

10.2.1Torques and spin rateTorque changes with lever arm
10.2.2Maximal force at the bottom of the swingConservation of energy with rotational motion; centripetal Force
10.2.3Swinging to speed up
10.2.4Dismount Angular momentum and conservation

10.3Figure skating -spinning on ice Angular momentum and work done by “internal” force

10.4Rotational Action and Reaction Angular momentum of di¿erent body parts

10.4.1Acrobatics of a long-jumper, revisited Rotational “action/reaction” about the transverse axis
10.4.2Throwing, kicking, twisting Rotation and counter-rotation along the longitudinal axis
10.4.3Balance Beam Rotation and counter-rotation about the anteroposterior axis

Equations

Problems

II Supplemental Chapters

11 Lines of action on the line of scrimmage: the torque wars

12 A Barry Bonds home run Ball-bat collisions

12.1 Ball-Bat Collision: Speeds, impulse, force

12.2 BBS –Batted Ball Speed

12.3 Focus on the bat Collision with an extended object

12.3.1Bonds’ swing
12.3.2The bat as an extended object Sweet spot, vibrations, e¿ective mass

13 The Pole Vault

13.1Origins

13.2 The modern event

13.2.1Performance progression
13.2.2Contributions to height

13.3Pole Vault 101 –Energy ¿ow

13.3.1Energy-based estimate of vaulting height
13.3.2What matters, in the simple calculation

13.4Pole Vault 102 –Beyond energy ¿ow

13.4.1Maximizing initial energy - carry weight
13.4.2Minimizing inelastic energy “loss”
13.4.3Fully exploiting the energy: ¿exibility and timing
13.4.4Work done by the athlete

14 Is it better to run through ¿rst base, or to dive?

14.1The story according to Sport Science

14.2Too close to call

14.3Diving speed

14.3.1“50% deceleration”
14.3.2Newton’s First Law and air drag

14.4 What’s really happening: Torque and impulse

14.5 Other issues

14.6Concluding remarks

Answers to odd-numbered problems

Unit conversions

Tables of relevant physical properties

Bibliography, Further Reading

Index

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