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Kant: Anthropology From A Pragmatic Point Of View

Kant: Anthropology From A Pragmatic Point Of View - Louden, Robert B./ Louden, Robert B. (EDT)/ Louden, Robert B. (TRN)/ Kuehn, Manfred (INT) - ISBN: 9780521855563
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Beschrijving

Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View is Kant’s last set of lecture notes for his annual course in anthropology, which he taught from 1772 until his retirement in 1796. Intended for a broad audience, it reveals not only Kant’s unique contribution to the newly emerging discipline of anthropology, but also his desire to offer students a practical view of the world and of humanity’s place in it. This volume offers a new annotated translation of the text by Robert B. Louden, together with an introduction by Manfred Kuehn.

Details

Titel: Kant: Anthropology From A Pragmatic Point Of View
auteur: Louden, Robert B./ Louden, Robert B. (EDT)/ Louden, Robert B. (TRN)/ Kuehn, Manfred (INT)
Mediatype: Boek
Bindwijze: Gebonden
Taal: Engels
Aantal pagina's: 288
Uitgever: Cambridge University Press
Plaats van publicatie: 03
NUR: Geschiedenis van de filosofie
Editor: Louden, Robert B.
Afmetingen: 235 x 159 x 21
Gewicht: 589 gr
ISBN/ISBN13: 052185556X
ISBN/ISBN13: 9780521855563
Intern nummer: 3455744
Volume: 1

Biografie (woord)

Manfred Kuehn is Professor of Philosophy at Boston University.

Extra informatie

Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View

Cambridge University Press
052185556X - Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View - Translated and Edited by Robert B. Louden
Index


Index

Abelard, Peter, 17

Abraham, 88

absent-mindedness, 78, 101, 102

abstinence, 230

abstraction, 19–20, 27, 37, 100, 106; faculty of, 20

acumen, 95–96

Addison, Joseph, 28

affectation, 21, 133, 208

affect(s), 72, 114, 127, 131, 149–165, 200; lack of affect, 150

affinity, 70

agreeable, the, 125–127, 153

ambition, 166

amusement, 128–131

anarchy, 235

anger, 150, 153, 156, 159

animals, 168, 232; have no passions, 166; representations in, 24

anthropologist, the, 15

anthropology, 204, 212; and metaphysics, 18, 33–34; from a pragmatic point of view, 3–6, 214; indirectly pragmatic, 109; in distinction to physical geography, 199; in distinction to psychology, 53; physiological, 3, 25, 69, 186; pragmatic, 63, 82, 143, 229–230

antiquities, Roman, 219

antiquity, 55

anxiety, 80, 153

apathy, 152

appearance(s), 33, 37; sensory, 37. See also deception(s)

apperception, 33; pure, 32, 53; pure and empirical, 23; spontaneity of, 29

appetite, 51, 163, 181. See also desire

apprehension, 16, 23, 32

Arabs, 74, 88, 169, 180

archaeology, of nature, 87, 227

Arcesilaus, 91

Archenholz, Johann Wilhelm von, 197

Archimedes, 231

Ariosto, Ludovico, 74

Aristotle, 44

Armenians, 222

Arouet, François-Marie, 105, 110

arrogance, 97, 105, 173. See also pride

art(s), 230; beautiful, 143, 145; mnemonic, 77; of pretence, 21; of writing, 78; perfect, 104; plastic, 142; poetic, 144

artists, 67, 120, 145; Greek, 197

association of representations, 69, 70, 75, 115

astonishment, 160

astrology, 81, 87

astronomy, 87

attention, 19, 20, 27, 53, 55, 102–119

audacity, 156, 160

autodidacts, 122

avarice, 189. See also mania for possession


Bacon, Francis, 119

balls, 147

Baratier, Jean Philippe, 122

barbarism, 235; revolutionary, 231

Baretti, Joseph, 118

Bavaria, 202

Bayard (Terrail, Pierre), 159

beauty, 136–139, 146, 198

bewitchment (of the senses), 41

biographies, 5

Blair, Hugh, 145–146

blind people, 52, 61

blood vengeance, 171

Blumauer, Johann Aloys, 55

Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich, 199

blushing, 86

book-learning, 124

books: of chivalry, 162; prohibition of, 113; women’s, 209. See also freedom of the press

boredom, 43, 127–128

Boswell, James, 118, 221

Bourignon, Antoinette, 22, 54

bravery, 154–159. See also courage

Brown, John, 154

Buffon, Georges-Louis Leclerc de, 116

buffoons, buffoonery, 104–105; hospital, 109. See also fools

Bull, John, 202

Büsch, Johann Georg, 216

Butler, Samuel, 117, 131


cameos, 197

Camper, Petrus, 199, 227

candor, 21, 160

Caribs, 79, 129

caricature, 65, 193, 200; of human heads, 196

Cato, 64

causality, law of, 80

ceremonies, 38

change (of sensations), 56–57

character, 185–238; as the way of thinking, 191–192; grounding of, 194; intelligible, 229; of the peoples, 213–222; of the person, 185–203; of the races, 223–224; of the sexes, 204–212; of the species, 225–238; sensible, 229

Charles II, King of England, 92

Charles XII, King of Sweden, 155, 193

chemistry, 70, 86

Chesterfield, Earl of, 179

children, 15, 137, 162, 168, 230, 232

Chinese, 151, 199

choleric temperament, 186, 189, 190

Christina, Queen of Sweden, 92

chronology, 82; Judeo-Christian, 88

cicisbeism, 208

civilization, 231

civil legislation, 235

Clavius, Christoph, 98

clergymen, 63, 94, 101, 104, 173, 195

coarseness, 93

cognition, 29; a priori, 33; symbolic and discursive, 84

Columbus, Christopher, 119

commercial spirit, 214, 217, 222

commonplaces, 77

common sense, 28, 62, 110. See also sound human understanding

compassion, 152

compliment(s), 44, 91

composition (artistic), 68

composure, of the mind, 150, 154, 159

concepts, 23, 27, 32, 60, 84, 92

concord, 226

consciousness, 32; of oneself, 15–16; pure and applied, 33; unity of, 15, 26

constitution: civil, 232, 233, 236; English, 213, 219; German, 221; state, 236

contentment, 130

contradiction, 55–54

contrast, 54–55; principle of, 134

conversation, 39, 69, 101, 178–179; language of, 214; taste for, 215

Cook, James, 206

coquetry, 206

Correggio, Antonio Allegri, 41

cosmopolitan society, 236–237, 238

courage, 155–159. See also bravery

courtesan system, 208

court jester, 165

cowardice, 154, 157, 176–177

coxcombs, 105, 113

craftiness, 92, 94, 99

cretins, 106

Cromwell, Oliver, 209–210

crossing the eyes, 201

crying, 154; after birth, 168; in women, 205. See also weeping

cultivation, 132, 207; of taste, 197

culture, 3, 147, 177, 178, 182, 228, 231, 233; arts of, 228; feelings that belong to, 207; historical, 233; moral, 233; of memory, 233; of the mind, 43; progress of, 204, 226

curiosity, 56

Cynicism, 25, 182


dance, 178

deaf people, 47, 51, 52, 86

death, 59–60, 132, 201; apparent, 58, 59; fear of, 60, 107, 157–159

debauchery, 147

decency, moral, 207

deception(s), 40, 44; of the senses, 41. See also appearance, sensory, illusion, sensory, illusions of inner sense

delirious raving, 108

delusion, 109, 175–176

dementia, 96, 109, 151

Demetrius of Phalerum, 177

demiurge, 237

derangement, 109

Descartes, René, 3, 69

desire, 149, 165

despotism, 235

despots, religious, 238

devotees, religious, 202

dinner parties, 179

Diogenes of Sinope, 192

discord, 226

discovering, 118, 119

disgust, 43, 147

dissimulation, 5

dissoluteness, 211

distraction, 68, 100, 164

divination, 80–82

dizziness, 59, 62, 71, 163

domestic peace, 205

domestic warfare, 205

dozen, 88–89

drama (versus comedy), 162

dreams, 82–83

drunkenness, 58–59. See also intoxication

duelling, 156, 158

duplicity, 176–177

Dutch businessmen, 199, 214

duty, 38; commands of, 156, 159; law of, 229; satisfaction subject to, 141; thought of, 18


ease, 21

eccentricity, 143, 164, 193

ecstasy, 59

education, 3, 228, 230; moral, 121, 232; of the human race, 233

egoism, 16–18

egoistic language, 18–19

egoists: aesthetic, 18; logical, 17–18; moral, 18

elegance, 147

eloquence (of women), 207

end(s), 91, 226; final, 85, 172, 180, 232; means to, 169; of nature, 207, 234; of reason, 96; of true happiness, 178

England, 215; English, 122, 129, 136, 151, 206, 213; character of, 216–218

enjoyment, 25, 44, 46, 57, 61, 125, 129, 133, 153, 165; in public, 207; of a moral happiness, 178; of loathsome things, 71; possession without, 174; social, 178

enlightenment, the, 85

enthusiasm, 20, 36, 54, 65, 80, 85, 97, 152, 169, 191, 216

ephemeral writings, 129

Epicurus, 57, 131

equality (political), 75

Eros, 139

erudition, 122

esprit, 120, 216

even temper, 131

execution, 158

experience, 16, 22–23, 30–32, 53; sense, 32

explanation, pragmatic, 69


face, structure of, 197–199

facial expressions, 197, 200–201, 219

faculty: cognitive, 29, 34, 90–100; of desire, 149, 165; of foresight, 75–80; of memory, 75; of using signs, 84–89; productive, 67–75

family kind, 223–224

fandango, 218

fantasy, 60, 68, 73, 74. See also imagination, power of the

fashion, 116, 142; taste in, 142–143

fathers, 212

fear, 59, 155, 159; in woman’s nature, 207

feeling, 94; moral, 229

femininity, 154, 162, 205

feudal system, 19

Fielding, Henry, 55, 57, 127

flatterers, 172

folly, 237. See also fools, foolishness

foolishness, 142, 237

fools, 100, 104, 164; in fashion, 143. See also buffoons, folly

fops, 105

forgetfulness, 78

form (aesthetic), 137; a priori, 143; human, 65

formalities (social), 38, 189

fortune-telling, 80

France, 215

Frederick William II, King of Prussia, 157, 238

free choice, 35

freedom, 3, 168–170, 232; and law, 235; damage to, 166; inclination of, 167; inner, 131; in the play of the power of imagination, 138; of the mind, 137; of the people, 75; of the power of choice, 229; of the press, 17; of thought, 116; spirit of, 216

French, 122, 151; character of, 215–216

French language, 214

friendship, 44, 194

fright, 153, 155

furor poeticus, 81, 97


gallantry, 44, 207, 211; feminine freedom in, 206

game(s), 43, 127, 175–176, 178; of chance, 134. See also lotteries

Gassner, Johann J., 42

genius, 27, 81, 119–123, 138, 220; apes of, 121. See also originality

geography, physical, 6, 199

Germans, 136; character of, 219–221

Germany, 215

ghost stories, 74, 163

girls, 21, 164

Girtanner, Christoph, 223

good, highest moral-physical, 178–182; highest physical, 176–177

good heart, 185

good humor, 132

good living, 179; art of, 148

greatness, 140

Greeks, 222

grief, 153, 188


habit(s), 5, 38, 40, 69, 146, 186

hairsplitting, 95

Haller, Albrecht, 22

happiness, 230, 231, 236; moral, 178

Harrington, James, 114

hatred, 150, 171, 206

Hausen, Christian August, 107

hearing, 47, 52, 61

Hearne, Samuel, 205

Heidegger (Heydegger), Johann Jacob, 199–200

Heinecke, Christian Heinrich, 122

Helmont, Jan Baptist, 111

Helvétius, Claude Adrien, 41, 72

hobbyhorses, 98

Hofstede, Johann Peter, 44

Homer, 84

homesickness, 71

honesty, 99, 219

honor, love of, 156

hope, 153

Horace, 144, 196

hot temper, 160

human being, as natural being and as rational being, 185; as rational animal, 226; knowledge of, 3

human dignity, 195

humanity, 178–182; pure, 232

human understanding, sound, 28, 62. See also common sense

Hume, David, 64, 66, 99, 160, 199, 210, 213

husbands, 190, 200, 206, 210, 211; as natural curator of women, 103

hypochondria, 72, 74, 96, 131. See also melancholy


I (as subject of thought), 15–23

idea(s), 66, 85, 93, 120, 143–144, 180

ideal, of pure practical reason, 85

idiocy, 106

idol, 85

illusion(s), 41; beautiful, 44; of inner sense, 53–54; permissible moral, 42–45; sensory, 40. See also deception(s)

imagination, power of, 22, 45, 60–67, 71, 72, 75, 101, 120, 137, 144, 220

imitator (in moral matters), 192

immaturity: in distinction to nonage, 103; of children, 103; of scholars, 104; of spendthrifts, 104; of the people, 103; of women, 103; self-incurred, 124

inclination of freedom, 167

inclination of sex, 167

inclination to good living and virtue, 178

Indians, 151; in Tahiti, 206; of America, 156, 199

indifference, 131

influence, mechanical and chemical, 49

insania (Wahnwitz), 96, 97, 109–110

inspirations, 54, 97, 113, 145, 220

instinct(s), 72, 90, 162, 165, 169

intellectuality, 29

interest, subjugation of private to public, 234

interpretation, symbolic and literal, 85

intoxication, 63. See also drunkenness

intuition, 27, 41; a priori, 32; empirical, 23, 45, 60

inventing, 119

Italians, 122, 151; character of, 218–219

Italy, 199


James I, King of England, 192

Japan, 199

jealousy, 127, 206, 208

Jesus, 38, 88

Jews, 63, 100

Job, 210

Johnson, Samuel, 117, 118

joy, 153; bitter, 133

Judaism, 39

judgment, power of, 78, 90, 93, 115, 123; aesthetic, 137; deranged, 109

jurists, 17

Juvenal, 91


Kant: as a boy, 83; at a dinner table, 89; seasickness on a voyage from Pillau to Königsberg, 62

Kästner, Abraham Gotthelf, 105

Keyserling, Countess Charlotte Amalie von, 161

knowledge, of the world, 3–6

Königsberg, 4, 62


ladies, lady, 55, 120, 143, 179; language of, 215. See also wife, wives, woman, women

language, 47, 86

laughing, laughter, 154–163, 164–165, 181

Lavater, Johann Caspar, 196, 201

Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 231

law digests (presented in pictures), 77

laws, of refined humanity, 182

laws, pure moral, 182

laypeople, 94, 104

laziness, 176–177

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm von, 29, 122

Leibniz-Wolffian school, 29

Leonardo da Vinci, 120

Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, 73

Less, Gottfried, 22

life, 80, 110, 135, 158; love of, 177

light, 48

Linnaeus (Carl von Linné), 77, 227

Locke, John, 24

logic, in distinction to psychology, 23–33

longing, 149

loquacity (of women), 205

lotteries, 134, 176, 219

love, 44, 57, 73, 112, 127, 170, 173, 177, 208; conjugal, 212; falling in, 72, 112, 151, 208; of life, 177; physical, 165; sexual, 25, 177; versus being in love, 165

lover(s), 41, 164

Lucretius, 73, 135, 168

lunatic asylums, 72, 109

luxury, 147–148

lying, 238; harmless, 73


madness, 20, 97, 112, 151

Magliabecchi, Antonio, 77

malice, 177, 237

maliciousness, 193

man, men, 154, 162, 200, 205; in distinction to woman, 204–207; young, 57, 133

mania, 96; for domination, 172, 173–174; for honor, 172–173; for possession, 172, 173–174. See also avarice

manners, 141, 178, 182, 202, 228

Marmontel, Jean François, 44

marriage, 73, 112, 205, 207, 210

married people, 72, 111

masculinity, 162

mathematics, 17

maxims, 214

medicine, 107; forensic, 108

melancholy, 22, 96, 106, 107, 188–189. See also hypochondria

memory, 75–78, 91

Mengs, Raphael, 41

mental derangement, 96, 106; hereditary, 111

mental illness(es), 54, 96–98, 106–111, 149

merchants, 100

Mesmer, Franz, 42

metaphysics, 33

Michaelis, Christian Friedrich, 72

Milton, John, 138, 209

mind, 53; clear, 28; good, 96; limited, 28, 99; obtuse, 98; slow, 98; universal, 122; weak, 98

mixture of different tribes, 218, 222

mob, 213

modesty, 43; of women, 207. See also propriety

Molière, Jean Baptiste Poquelin, 5

monarchy, 235

money, 172, 174, 175

monotony, 56

monstrous, the, 140

Montaigne, Michel Eyquiem de, 60

mood, sudden change of, 107

morality, 133, 94, 130, 141, 185, 188, 231; and religion, 94, 233; in distinction to psychology, 134, 157

moralization, 229, 231

Mordaunt, Lord, 129

Moscati, Peter, 226

mothers, 16, 212

music, 47, 67, 101, 142, 145, 178; dinner, 181

musical ear, 52, 61

musician(s), 24, 145

mysticism, number, 89

mystics, 26


naïveté, 21

nation, 213

natural aptitude, 185–186, 214. See also predisposition

nature, wisdom of, 226, 234

nausea, 50

Nero, 158

news, 181

newspapers, 101

Newton, Isaac, 122, 231

Nicolai, Christoph Friedrich, 202

night (and day, effect of ), 73–74

nightmares, 83

nonsense, 62

norm (aesthetic), 197

novels, 5, 127, 144; reading of, 78, 102

novelty, 146; in fashion, 143; in presentation of a concept, 144


obscurity, studied, 26

opium, 111, 155

orator, the, 144

originality, 119–121. See also genius, spirit

Orpheus, 84

Ossian, 84


pain, 125–127; as incentive of activity, 126, 130; pleasing (sweet sorrow), 133

painters: of ideas, 145; of nature, 145

painting, 145

Palagonia, Prince, 68

paradox, 17

Pascal, Blaise, 22, 54

passion(s), 41, 72, 149–151, 165–176

patience, 39, 157; as a feminine virtue, 155

peace, lasting, 236

pedantry, 27; German, 221

Pellisson-Fontanier, Paul, 198–199

people(s), 213–222; character of, 213–222

perception, 16; immediate, 46; mediate, 47

perfection, of the human being, 226

Persius, 21

person, 15, 229

philosopher(s), 180, 190, 195, 215

phlegm, 189–191, 219–220; in the good sense, 150; in the moral sense, 152

physiognomy, 195–199; moral, 237; national, 202

physiology (in distinction to psychology), 186

Pico della Mirandola, Giovanni, 77

planets, rational beings on other, 237; reading the, 81

Plato, 179

Platonic school, 29

Plautus, 213

play of images, 137

play of nature, 203

play of sensibility, 137, 144

plays (dramatic performance), 5, 66, 127

pleasure, mental, 50; sensuous, 125–127

pleasure and displeasure, 45, 125–144, 149, 152, 186

pluralism (in contrast to egoism), 18

poet, poets, 34, 81, 144–147, 194; has no character, 147

poetic license, 146

poetry, 36, 143–147, 220

Poland, 215, 221

politeness, 44, 213

Politianus, Angelus, 77

polygamy, 205

polyhistorians, 77, 122

pomp, 143, 189

Pope, Alexander, 30, 104, 167, 174, 206

popularity, falsely named, 28

Porta, Baptista, 196

power, sexual, 210

powerlessness, feeling of, 162

prediction, 80

predisposition, moral, 226, 228–229; natural, 185; pragmatic, 226, 228; technical, 226–228

premonition, 80

price (in distinction to worth), 192

pride, 112. See also arrogance

primer, illustrated, 77

principles, morally practical, 193; practical, 192

private sense, logical, 113

prodigy, 122

profile, Greek, 197

profundity, 26

propensity, 165. See also tendency to be deceived, tendency to evil

prophecy, 80, 82

prophets, 82, 84

propriety, 44, 160; German, 221. See also modesty

proverbs, 117

prudence, 95, 105, 130, 172; maxim of, 171

psychology, 30, 74, 108; in distinction to anthropology, 53; in distinction to logic, 29, 33; in distinction to morality, 134, 157; in distinction to physiology, 186. See also sense, interior

Ptolemaic system, 88

punishment, 150

purism, 25


Quin, James, 203


rabble, 143, 213

race(s), 4, 223–224; evil, 238

rancor, 159, 171

rationalizing, 94, 124

reason, 90, 93, 123–124, 141, 152, 228; pure practical, 166, 171; technically practical, 171

receptivity, 23, 29, 33

reflection, 23, 27, 32

religion, 85, 93, 94, 202, 233, 238

repentance, 132

representations, 23–29; distinctness of, 24, 26, 29; indistinctness of, 26, 29; inner (internal), 35, 48; mathematical and dynamic, 70; obscure, 24; outer (external), 35, 48

reproduction, 70, 111, 207, 223

republic, 235

rhetoric, 36, 143–147

rhyme, 146

Richardson, Samuel, 5

right: of the stronger, 205; of the weaker, 103, 205

Robertson, William, 220

Roland de la Platière, Jean Marie, 158

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 219, 228, 231, 232, 238

rules, 90, 91; conformity to, 198

Russia, 215, 221

Russians, 206


sagacity, 118–119

Sagramoso, Count, 161, 162

salts, 49, 52

sanguine temperament, 39, 188, 190

satisfaction: aesthetic, 141–142; moral, 133

savage, the, 168

Scaliger, Julius Caesar, 77, 122

scholars, 27, 104, 230–231

school rigor, 120

Schwarz, Berthold, 119

science, 28, 146, 230

Scottish Highlanders, 80

sculpture, 145

seasickness, 62, 163

self-observation, 20–23

self-torment, 95, 107

sensation, 34, 45, 54, 57, 132; organic, 45; vital, 45

sense, inner, 23, 29, 33, 36, 53

sense, interior, 45. See also psychology

sense, vital, 50

senses: do not command, 36; do not confuse, 35; do not deceive, 37; five, 45, 61; of perception, 49; of pleasure, 49; subjective and objective, 46, 52. See also hearing, sight, smell, taste, touch

sensibility, 29; (apology for), 34–37; (in contrast to understanding), 29–34

sensitivity, 50; of woman, 209

sentimentality, 132; of man, 209

separatists, 63–64

sermons, 56, 69, 76

seven (mystical importance of), 88

sex(es), 44, 70, 162, 204–212; character of, 204–212; female, 103, 173, 199, 204; male, 43, 103, 173, 199

sexual instinct, 72, 211, 230

Shakespeare, William, 73

shame, 159

Sharp, Samuel, 217

shyness, 154, 160

sight, 48–49

signs, 85–87; arbitrary, 85–86; miraculous, 87; natural, 86–87; prognostic, 87

silhouettes, 197

silliness, 99

simple-mindedness, 21, 104

simpleton, the, 99

simplicity, 117; roguish, 131; seeming, 161

skill, 38, 95, 130; artistic, 144

skillfulness, 148

sleep, 58–59, 68, 82–83

smell, 49, 61

Smith, Adam, 103

smoking, 52–53, 127

sociability, 178

Socrates, 28, 36, 44, 97, 151, 210

solemnity, 218

Solon, 91

somnambulism, 82

Sonnerat, Pierre, 83

soul(s), 53–54, 110, 186; beautiful, 139; goodness of, 139, 193; greatness of, 139, 193; physician of, 150; strength of, 139, 193

Spain, 215

Spaniards, 151; character of, 218

species, character of, 225–238; preservation of, 233

spirit, 120–121, 143–144. See also originality

spiritualism, 54

spontaneity, 23, 33

state, three forms of, 236

Sterne, Laurence, 98, 131

Stoic school, 152

stout-heartedness, 155

strength, moral, 38

stupidity, 99–100, 104

sublime, the, 46, 138, 145, 219

subordinates, 94

suicide, 107, 157–158

Sulla, Lucius Cornelius, 193

supersensible, the, 160

superstition, 42, 97, 100, 124

surprise, 140, 160

Swedenborg, Emmanuel, 85

Swift, Jonathan, 43, 44, 117

Swiss, 71

symbols, 65, 84–85


tact, logical, 28

talent(s), 115, 144

taste, 49, 61, 136, 147

taste, aesthetic, 18, 136–139, 196; as external advancement of morality, 141–142; formation of, 21; in art, 143–147; in fashion, 142–143; social, 180

temperament, 186–191

tendency to be deceived, 43

tendency to evil, 229, 237

Terrasson, Abbé Jean, 164

thing in itself, 33

thinkers, three commands for, 124

thinking, 29, 86; for oneself, 95, 124

thirteen (as unlucky number), 88

thought, 62, 181; form and content of, 29

thread of discourse, 67

time, 32, 53, 75, 126

timidity, 154–159, 160

Timon, 237

titles, 221

tobacco, 52, 127

topics, 77

touch, 46–47

travel, 4

travel books, 4

Trinity, the, 110

Trublet, Nicolas Charles Joseph de la Flourie, 116

truthfulness, 195

Turkey, 69, 215, 222

Turks, 155, 215, 222


ugliness, 138, 198–199, 200

unconsciousness, 59

understanding, 15, 25, 28, 70, 90–93, 115, 123, 138; sound, 102, 113

unreason, 111, 112


vanity, 142–143

vapors, of women, 133

varieties, of peoples, 214

vengeance, desire for, 170–171

ventriloquists, 42

Ver[r]i, Count Pietro, 127

verse(s), 145, 220

vesania (Aberwitz), 96, 110

virtue(s), 38, 39, 42, 43, 44, 178, 182, 195; feminine, 209; masculine, 209; strength of, 156

visionary, the, 60, 97, 107

vital force, 126

vocation (of the human being), 228, 232, 234

Voltaire, François Marie Arouet de, 105, 117, 211


Waller, Edmund, 118

war, 177, 235

weeping, 154, 162. See also crying

well-being: physical, 236; rational, 236

widows, 133, 162, 206, 212

wife, wives, 104, 161, 190

windbags, 191

wisdom, 94–95, 135, 172, 196

wit, 95–96, 98, 115, 147, 181, 189; caustic, 147, 189; humorous, 117; mother, 28; nimble, 163; productive, 115, 116–118; school, 28; witty people, 77; witty saying, 117

witches, 42

woman, women, 43, 63, 74, 101, 105, 109, 117, 181, 200, 204–212; immature in civil matters, 103; over-mature, 103; scholarly, 209. See also ladies, lady

womankind, 207

work, the best way of enjoying life, 127

world history, 5

worth, inner, 192


Xanthippe, 210

xenia, 147


Young, Edward, 117


© Cambridge University Press

Voorwoord

Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View

Cambridge University Press
052185556X - Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View - Translated and Edited by Robert B. Louden
Frontmatter/Prelims


CAMBRIDGE TEXTS IN THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY

IMMANUEL KANT

Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View


CAMBRIDGE TEXTS IN THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY

Series editors

KARL AMERIKS

Professor of Philosophy at the University of Notre Dame

DESMOND M. CLARKE

Professor of Philosophy at University College Cork

The main objective of Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy is to expand the range, variety and quality of texts in the history of philosophy which are available in English. The series includes texts by familiar names (such as Descartes and Kant) and also by less well-known authors. Wherever possible, texts are published in complete and unabridged form, and translations are specially commissioned for the series. Each volume contains a critical introduction together with a guide to further reading and any necessary glossaries and textual apparatus. The volumes are designed for student use at undergraduate and postgraduate level and will be of interest not only to students of philosophy, but also to a wider audience of readers in the history of science, the history of theology and the history of ideas.

For a list of titles published in the series, please see end of book.


IMMANUEL KANT

Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View

TRANSLATED AND EDITED BY

ROBERT B. LOUDEN

University of Southern Maine

WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY

MANFRED KUEHN

Boston University


CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
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© Cambridge University Press 2006

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First published 2006

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

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ISBN-13 978-0-521-85556-3 hardback

ISBN-10 0-521-85556-X hardback

ISBN-13 978-0-521-67165-1 paperback

ISBN-10 0-521-67165-5 paperback

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Contents

Introductionpage vii
Chronologyxxx
Further readingxxxiii
Note on the text and translationxxxvi
Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View1
Preface3
Contents7
Part IAnthropological Didactic. On the way of cognizing the interior as well as the exterior of the human being13
Book IOn the cognitive faculty15
Book IIThe feeling of pleasure and displeasure125
Book IIIOn the faculty of desire149
Part IIAnthropological Characteristic. On the way of cognizing the interior of the human being from the exterior183
Index239

Introduction

The origins of Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View

Anthropology as understood today is a discipline concerned with the study of the physical, cultural, social, and linguistic development of human beings from prehistoric times to the present. It is a relatively new phenomenon, which came into its own only during the early nineteenth century. Its roots, however, can be traced back to the last third of the eighteenth century. Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Condorcet in France, Lord Kames, Lord Monboddo, and William Robertson in Scotland, and Immanuel Kant, Georg Forster, Christoph Meiners, and Ernst Platner in Germany were among the most important early contributors to this new field of study. It grew ultimately from a fundamental concern of the European Enlightenment, being conceived as an alternative to the theological understanding of the nature of man and born of the belief that the proper study of mankind is man, not God.

Kant fully subscribed to this Enlightenment conception, even though, as we shall also see, he did not want to deny that theological concerns were very important for the proper understanding of human nature. He was, in any case, one of the first thinkers ever to lecture on anthropology as an independent academic discipline at university level. Though the Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View was published at the end of the eighteenth century in 1798, he had by then already lectured on it for twenty-five years. Indeed, his first lectures predate Kames’s Sketches of the History of Man of 1774 by more than a year. And his concern with anthropological topics is already evident in his first course on physical geography, which he offered in the summer of 1756. Kant’s Anthropology is thus an important document in the history of this discipline. When he first offered a course explicitly dedicated to anthropology in the winter semester of 1772–3, he had already thought about its contents for some time. On the other hand, there was not much precedent for it, and he had every right to feel like a pioneer.

Kant’s conception of anthropology was in many ways rather different from the way it is conceived of today. From the very beginning he viewed it not just as an empirical or descriptive discipline, but also as a useful tool for the moral and cultural improvement of his students. Thus he wrote toward the end of 1773 to his former student Marcus Herz – someone who he knew had a great interest in the subject – that he was offering for the second time a colloquium privatum on anthropology, and that he was planning to transform this subject into a proper academic discipline. This plan was, he said, “unique,” for the main purpose of the new course of studies was to

introduce the sources of all the sciences that are concerned with morals, with the ability of commerce, and the method of educating and ruling human beings, or all that is practical. In this discipline I will, then, be more concerned to seek out the phenomena and their laws than the first principles of the possibility of modifying human nature itself.    (10, p. 145)1

His goal was twofold: (1) a theoretical investigation of the source of all practical philosophy, its phenomena, and its laws, and (2) a doctrine that was itself practical in teaching the rudiments of prudence, wisdom, or knowledge of the world.

Kant went on to assure Herz that the contents of the course would be enjoyable rather than dry and academic. Drawing an explicit parallel to his lectures on physical geography, he characterized it as an “observational doctrine” (Beobachtungslehre) that he intended to develop in such a way that it would serve his students in later life. He also felt it necessary to point out explicitly that he would not address such “subtle” but “eternally futile” questions or philosophical problems as the mind–body relation. The lectures should be “popular” both in the sense that the subject matter was treated “popularly” and in the sense that the lectures should attract many students as (paying) customers.

It should also be obvious that the plan for this new academic discipline, concerned with the sources of all that is practical, moral, or has to do with human interaction, is connected with the attempts of other contemporaries in this direction. Indeed, Herz’s review of Ernst Platner’s newly published Anthropology for Physicians and Philosophers provided the immediate occasion for his remarks in the letter. And there is other evidence which shows how closely he was attuned to the developments having to do with the newly emerging study of anthropological issues, and how he consciously chose a different direction from that taken by his contemporaries.2

It appears by all accounts that he was successful in his attempt to be popular. While his lectures on metaphysics were considered very difficult by most of his students, the lectures on anthropology (like the lecture on physical geography) were among the best attended he ever offered, even though they were not free like the lectures on metaphysics.3 It is therefore not surprising that Kant felt at the end of his teaching career that the notes for these lectures that he had prepared over the years deserved to be published in their own right as a textbook on which other professors could base their lectures, just as he had relied for so many years on Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten’s Metaphysica in his lectures on metaphysics and anthropology. He must have taken this decision during the early summer of 1798.4 Johann Friedrich Abegg, who visited Königsberg in 1798, wrote on June 1 in his travel journal that earlier that morning Kant had corrected his Anthropology, as this work would now be published as well. We do not know whether these “corrections” were revisions of Kant’s own manuscript, a version of which is extant in the Library of the University of Rostock, or whether he was working on the proof sheets sent by the printer. It seems likely that it was the former, as Kant was not in the habit of going carefully through the proofs himself.5

Two thousand copies of the Anthropology were printed – more than any of his other works.6 The book seems to have sold well, for just two years later a second edition appeared. But it was not a critical success. Apart from Friedrich Schleiermacher’s entirely negative review in the Athenäum, a journal devoted to the cause of Romanticism and highly critical of many of the ideals of the Enlightenment, there was no discussion.7 Not surprisingly, Schleiermacher’s review was not designed to create a need for such a discussion. It begins as follows: “A summary of this book could not be much more than a collection of trivial matters. If, on the other hand, it were intended to give a sketch of the plan and its execution … it would necessarily give a distinct picture of the most peculiar confusion.”

These claims are not entirely unfair. Kant’s Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View is a difficult book, and it is difficult precisely because it reveals a certain tension between particular factual observations and assertions that seem homely and trivial, if not downright false, and somewhat muted suggestions that the whole enterprise is highly significant without a clear indication of what precisely makes it so significant. On the one hand, it is described by Kant as a “manual” or Handbuch concerned with the down-to-earth task of providing the rudiments of “knowledge of the world” to students in their early teens, the implication being that it is not just based on his own lectures but it could and should be used by other university teachers as the basis for their own lectures on this subject. On the other hand, the book ends with the assertion that


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Quote

"This new, fully annotated translation of Kant's Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View is a welcome addition in light of the continuing focus among scholars on the question of whether empirical psychology is possible for Kant."
Philosophy in Review, Gregory Kalyniuk

Inhoudsopgave

Part I. Anthropological Didactic: Book I. On the cognitive faculty; Book II. On the feeling of pleasure and displeasure; Book III. On the faculty of desire; Part II. Anthropological Characteristic: A. On the character of the person; B. On the character of the sexes; C. On the character of peoples; D. On the character of the races; E. On the character of the species.

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